Directorate of Distance Education
The Directorate of Distance Education established in 1979, and now offers more than two hundred different programmes of study under the Regular Stream. It is credited with the largest enrolment in India and is well equipped with computer and other infrastructure, adequate teaching faculty and administrative set-up of its own, study centres, computer training centres, etc., to serve its students' clientele in their best interest at their door steps. It has also the unique distinction of offering first in India, Postgraduate Degree Programmes in Applied Psychology, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, Bioinformatics and Law through Distance Education mode. The Directorate of Distance Education is also offering the Programmes on Fashion Design, Textile Design, Interior Design, Hotel Management and Catering Technology Programmes, Retail Management, Twinning Programme, Programmes on Health Science, Yoga, Music, Fire and Safety.
All the programmes of study offered by the Directorate of Distance Education have the approval of the Distance Education Council, New Delhi. The Directorate is introducing B.Ed. Programme through distance education mode from the year 2008-09 with the approval of National Council for Teacher Education, New Delhi.
MBA assignments annamalai university
4602 WordsJan 27th, 201419 Pages
Let the event X = selected at company X and the event Y = selected at company Y. This means that X' = rejected at X and Y' = rejected at Y. Here the prime notation means the "complement of". From the information given, we have
P(X) = 0.7
P(Y') = 0.5
P(X') = 0.3
P(Y) = 0.5.
using P(X) = 1 - P(X'), etc.
As stated, we want the probability of the event X∪Y = union of events X and Y = either X or Y, or both, happens (one or the other or both of the applications being selected). In other words, we want P(X∪Y), which can be written, using the axioms of probability theory, as
P(X∪Y) = P(X) + P(Y) - P(X∩Y) where the ∩ symbol means the "intersection of" or, in other words, both X and Y happen. So now we need to calculate P(X∩Y).…show more content…
Under centralization, the important and key decisions are taken by the top management and the other levels are into implementations as per the directions of top level. For example, in a business concern, the father & son being the owners decide about the important matters and all the rest of functions like product, finance, marketing, personnel, are carried out by the department heads and they have to act as per instruction and orders of the two people. Therefore in this case, decision making power remain in the hands of father & son.
On the other hand, Decentralization is a systematic delegation of authority at all levels of management and in all of the organization. In a decentralization concern, authority in retained by the top management for taking major decisions and framing policies concerning the whole concern. Rest of the authority may be delegated to the middle level and lower level of management.
The degree of centralization and decentralization will depend upon the amount of authority delegated to the lowest level. Acco “Decentralization refers to the systematic effort to delegate to the lowest level of authority except that which can be controlled and exercised at central points.
Decentralization is not the same as delegation. In fact, decentralization is all extension of delegation. Decentralization pattern is wider is scope and the authorities are diffused to the lowest most level of management. Delegation of authority is a complete process