For editorial originality, Similarity Check helps editors compare the text of submitted papers for similarity.
Similarity Check is a service for editors who want an extra check. The service helps our members to actively engage in efforts to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism by providing their editorial teams with access to Turnitin’s powerful text comparison tool, iThenticate. Watch the video below to find out more:_
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With editors under increased pressure to assess higher volumes of manuscript submissions each year, the iThenticate tool provides immediate feedback regarding a manuscript’s similarity to other published academic and general web content. And with a database of over 50 million full-text scholarly content items, editors can be confident that iThenticate will provide a comprehensive and reliable addition to their workflow.
As Similarity Check members contribute their own published content into iThenticate’s database of full-text literature, the service is open to any Crossref member who is actively publishing DOI-assigned article content.
While there are several plagiarism screening tools available, using iThenticate as a Similarity Check member is unique as it creates a symbiotic relationship between content-owners and Turnitin. Similarity Check members enjoy cost-effective use of iThenticate because they contribute their own published content into Turnitin’s database of full-text literature. This means that as the number of Similarity Check members grow, so too does the size of the content database powering iThenticate. More content in the database, means greater peace of mind for editors looking to determine a manuscript’s originality.
Turnitin also provide Similarity Check members with access to additional features in iThenticate, such as enhanced text-matches within the document viewer. And with access to Turnitin’s dedicated Similarity Check support team, our members always have a direct line to Turnitin in order to discuss any iThenticate technical or billing queries.
How it works
In return for a reduced rate of access to iThenticate, Similarity Check members allow Turnitin to index their full catalogue of current and archival published content as this ensures the highest level of text-matching accuracy. This means that the service is only available to members who are actively publishing DOI-assigned content.
Turnitin index members content directly via their Content Intake System. Their CIS accesses our metadata daily to collect the full-text content links provided by our members within their DOI deposit metadata. Turnitin follow these URLs and index the content found at each location. If full-text content is protected by authentication, then the member’s hosting provider must whitelist Turnitin’s IP range to ensure their content is accessible for indexing purposes.
On application to join, members must ensure they have full-text URLs present in at least 90% of their article-level DOI metadata (across all the member’s journal prefixes, if applicable). These URLs need to point directly to the full-text PDF, HTML or plain text content. Member’s must also ensure that these links are included in all future deposits too.
Once member’s meet the eligibility criteria for Similarity Check, Turnitin will provide them with access to iThenticate. Using iThenticate, members will be able to upload their own manuscripts to compare against the full corpus of published academic and general web content in Turnitin’s database. iThenticate provides a similarity score and a highlighted set of matches to similar text. Editors can then further review matches in order to make their own decision regarding a manuscript’s originality.
How to participate
If you are a Crossref member and are assigning article-level DOIs which include the URL to the full-text PDF, HTML or plain text content, then you are eligible to join Similarity Check. Please follow the steps below to apply:
- Review the membership Terms & Conditions on this page and read through Turnitin’s service agreement.
- Ensure that you have included full-text URLs in the at least 90% your Crossref article-level DOI deposits and that Turnitin’s IP range will have access to your content.
- Complete the online registration form.
- Sign a copy of the service agreement and email it back to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Turnitin and Crossref will then review your application and test your DOI metadata to ensure that your content is able to be indexed. Once this is confirmed, you will be able to begin using iThenticate.
For more information about Turnitin’s IP range or for how to include full-text URLs in your DOI metadata, refer to our get started guide. Full technical instructions are available on our help site.
Obligations and fees
Similarity Check fees are in two parts: a per-document checking fee and an annual administrative fee. Per-document checking fees are paid directly to Turnitin and are significantly less than those charged by Turnitin to stand-alone iThenticate users. Additionally, volume discounts also apply. The annual administrative fee is paid to us and is set at 20% of your Crossref annual membership fee.
Terms and conditions
The Similarity Check service is a program being offered by Crossref to its members, on an optional basis. The Similarity Check Service is designed to aid Crossref members in identifying circumstances in which works being considered for publication may have been previously published in whole or in part by (i) facilitating the creation of the Similarity Check Database, (ii) identifying appropriate providers of software tools that can compare the text of works being considered for publication to the text of other works, including those in the Similarity Check Database, and (iii) establishing general recommended terms of participation for Participating Publishers and the identified software provider.
All Crossref members in good standing who currently meet all Crossref member obligations shall be eligible to participate in Similarity Check as “Participating Publishers.” Participating Publishers must make substantially all of their Publisher Content (as further defined below) available for inclusion in the Similarity Check database. To meet the required level of participation, the Participating Publisher must deposit the content associated with at least 90% of that member’s deposited DOIs for full text journal articles, although 100% inclusion of Publisher’s full text content in machine readable form (journal articles, conference proceedings articles, books and books chapters and theses and dissertations) (“the Publisher Content”) is the agreed goal. Components (defined as subparts of content that are generally not citable) and datasets will not be included, and will not be considered “Publisher Content” for purposes of determining the level of participation. This requirement will also apply to the content associated with the Participating Publisher DOI’s deposited monthly with Crossref on an ongoing basis.
In addition, all Participating Publishers will enter into an agreement directly with the plagiarism detection vendor (the “Vendor”) providing the software platform for the Similarity Check services. A form agreement can be found here: Similarity Check Service Agreement
Each Similarity Check Participating Publisher, subject to Vendor’s compliance with the service level standards and reporting obligations contained in the Vendor’s agreement with Similarity Check and in the Vendor’s agreement with each Participating Publisher:
- Must make Publisher Content available in the Similarity Check database on an ongoing basis, within no more than 7 days of digital availability, by both registering DOIs for Publisher Content with Crossref within this period and enabling Vendor to index Publisher Content. (Failure of the Vendor to index content made available by a participant will not affect the right of the Participating Publisher to use the Similarity Check service. The Participating Publisher is only responsible for making content available for indexing. Failure to make content available for indexing could result in suspension of the Similarity Check Service for a Participating Publisher.)
- Must deposit with Crossref, along with DOIs for the Publisher Content, full, correct and current metadata including article title and all authors.
- Must make the full text of the Publisher Content available, as part of the Similarity Check Database, to other Participating Publishers in the context of the interface provided by the Vendor as part of the content checking process. Users of the Vendor’s service who are not Participating Publishers will only see snippets of text with a DOI link to the Participating Publisher’s site, where the Participating Publisher will have full discretion to determine whether and on what terms to user may be given access to the full text.
- May not submit works to be checked against the Similarity Check Database through the Vendor’s service until substantially all the journal articles included in the Publisher Content has been made available to the Vendor for inclusion in the Similarity Check database (i.e., >90% of the journal content associated with eligible Participating Publisher DOIs on deposit with Crossref).
- Must have full-text URLs (also known as “as-crawled URLs”) on deposit at Crossref that point to the full-text PDF (preferable), HTML or plain text content.
- Is responsible for verifying that their in-house and outside editorial staff and reviewers do not use their access to the Similarity Check Service as a “back-door” method for getting free full-text access to included content. The steps to be used to accomplish this should include (i) limiting access to the service to those employees and outside contractors who, in the Participating Publisher’s reasonable judgment, have a need to use the service; (ii) requiring each employee and contractor using the service to register using his or her real name and current job title; (iii) limiting submissions to the service for checking to those that pertain to a publication published by the Participating Publisher; (iv) taking reasonable steps to ensure that account information and passwords used to access the service are kept confidential and are not shared beyond the permitted users of the service; (v) submitting to an audit of users, to be conducted by the Vendor at the Vendor’s cost no more often than once per year, to determine if unauthorized users are being given or are getting access to the Vendor’s services through the Participating Publisher; and (vi) taking reasonable steps to monitor use and potential abuse of the service, based on usage reports to be provided by Vendor.
- Shall be entitled to the number of accounts with Vendor that are reasonably necessary for the Participating Publisher to make use of the Service, with no set limit on the number of accounts on a per-member basis.
- Shall establish a procedure within the Participating Publisher for help desk and support questions regarding the use of the Vendor’s software, and shall made arrangements for appropriate training for one or more persons including, where feasible, on-site training at the Vendor’s facilities, to facilitate efficient contact between the Participating Publisher and Vendor. The established procedure shall include the designation of a single point of contact with the Participating Publisher unless otherwise agreed in the agreement between the Participating Publisher and Vendor. Such individual agreements may also include additional support and service commitments on the part of the Vendor.
- Shall establish a procedure for informing authors that works submitted for publication may be checked through a plagiarism detection system and that, as part of this process, the submitted work will be copied for internal checking purposes and that a copy may be retained, although not further disseminated or integrated into the Similarity Check or other, Vendor supplied databases.
Similarity Check Monitoring and Verification
After an initial start up period of 3 months from the commencement of participation by a particular member, Crossref will have the ability to review the level of participation of Participating Publishers to confirm that they are meeting the obligations of the service. A Participating Publisher who meets those qualifications will have two status indicators available for use. We expect that members will find it valuable to highlight their participation in Similarity Check to demonstrate that they are adding value to the editorial process and cooperating to help ensure that content published as original is properly identified. Suitable logos will be developed that indicate Similarity Check participation, as follows:
“Similarity Check Depositor”: May be displayed on a Participating Publisher’s site and at other locations as set forth in the Similarity Check Trademark Guidelines to indicate that the member has satisfied the requirements for participating in Similarity Check. This will, by implication, indicate that the member is being a “good citizen” in the fight against plagiarism. However, the use of this status indicator does not carry any implication with respect to the plagiarism status of the Participating Publisher’s works.
“Similarity Check Deposited”: May be displayed on articles or other relevant content to indicate that the item has been deposited into the Similarity Check Database. This can act as warning to those who might plagiarize the item.
These phrases and the associated logos will be factual indications that the member participates in the Similarity Check service and that a particular work is included in the database used by the Similarity Check service. Their use does not give any indication or assurances about the content of the particular works with which they are associated, including about whether the particular work contains or does not contain plagiarized materials.
During the period that the initial plagiarism detection vendor, Turnitin LLC., is the sole Vendor for the Similarity Check Service, use of the Similarity Check trademarks and/or logos, as described in these Terms and Conditions, will include the phrase “Powered by iThenticate.”
Do I need to be a Crossref member to join Similarity Check? Yes, the Similarity Check service is only available to members who are depositing article-level DOIs with us.
What technology are you using to provide this service? We have partnered with leading plagiarism screening systems vendor Turnitin to create the Similarity Check database and to use their iThenticate tool for checking documents against the database. As a Similarity Check member, you will need to sign a service agreement with Turnitin to use their system and to provide them with access to your full-text content. This agreement has been fully reviewed and approved by us and several of our members and should not require any additional negotiation.
What is the difference between Similarity Check and iThenticate? Similarity Check is a service specifically for our members. It provides members with cost-effective access to the iThenticate text comparison software from Turnitin. Other organizations and individuals can use the iThenticate service directly by contacting iThenticate.
Similarity Check members benefit from a tailored iThenticate experience that includes read-only access to the full text of articles in the Similarity Check database for comparison purposes, discounted checking fees and unlimited user accounts per organization.
I’m not able to include full-text URLs in my DOI metadata. Can Turnitin index my content using another method? No. To ensure the most robust, secure and complete indexing of content, Turnitin is only able to support the direct-indexing method. This involves following the URLs that member’s provide in their Crossref metadata to find and index full-text content. Turnitin do also operate a general web crawler, called Walker, but this crawler targets general web content and is not suitable for comprehensively indexing full-text, published academic content.
Please contact our member services team with any questions or to get set up, or contact our support team for any technical or troubleshooting questions.
For iThenticate user help, please refer to Turnitin’s Similarity Check User Manual or get in touch with their support team at email@example.com
In most of the societies, gender inequality has been practiced where one group is always discriminated and its rights being neglected. Mostly, women find themselves being the victims of discrimination, or they receive unequal treatment compared to men. Equality refers to the people’s right to be treated with respect, equal in dignity and consideration, equal basis of participation in any area of social, economic, cultural, political or civil life (Hill, 2011). All people are equal regardless of sex and should be equally protected and given right to benefit from the law. Equality is meant to ensure that people are treated in a way that their results are the same.
Equality can be achieved through ensuring that every person in the society is supported and have access to decision making, acquire resources, be valued, recognized and respected. As a result of gender inequality where women are discriminated, different organizations both governmental and non-governmental have been initiated with an aim of fighting for women rights. Women have also tried to fight for equality in different sectors through participating in areas that are dominated by men.
These are the entitlements and rights claimed for women in many societies worldwide (Curry, 2010). In many places, these rights are supported by law or institutionalized, local custom, and behavior, whereas in other areas they are ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader human right notions through claims of an inherent traditional and historical bias where men are men are favoured and women marginalized.
Issues associated with notions of women rights
Gender inequality based on women is practiced in different sectors of the society where they are given unequal treatment compared to men. Though not limited to, the right to bodily autonomy and integrity. Some of these areas where inequality is practiced include; right to vote (suffrage), hold public offices, equal pay or fair wages in places of work. Other areas involve right to own property, equal access to education, serving in the military, entering into legal contracts and have parental or marital rights (Gidden, 2012). However, women and other international organizations have been established with an aim of fighting for women equality. Though a lot of effort has been applied and some laws enacted in different nations as constitutional rights for women, they have not achieved 100% positive results. This has been suppressed by the fact that men are the majority in many sectors and are still holding higher ranked positions than women. However, this becomes a challenge for women to pass motions concerning their rights due to lack of support by some relevant authorities.
Effort to fight for equality
International bodies have defined gender equality in terms of human rights; this is based on economic development and women’s rights (Merry, 2009). UNICEF describes it as men and women enjoying same rights, opportunities, resources and protections. Gender equality is one of the UN millenniums projects that are intended to end the world poverty by 2015. Women struggle for equality begun many years ago when they realized that their rights such as right to vote, own property, inequality in work places, corporate discrimination among others have been suppressed and ignored.
Right to vote
During the 19th century, some women started agitating for the voting right and participating in government and the process of law making (Lawson, 2009). This movement supported by Helen Kendrick Johnson, whose prescient work woman of 1897 and the public had the best arguments against suffrage of women. This ideal concerning women’s suffrage was developed as universal suffrage that is today considered as women’s right. The suffrage is based under a convention intended to minimize forms of discrimination based on women. This agitation led New Zealand to become the first country to give women right to vote at national levels in 1893. Later on early 20th century many Nordic countries gave women right to participate in voting. Some countries in Latin America, Asia, and Middle East later allowed women to participate in voting by the mid of the 20th century.
Right to own property
In the 19th century, some women in Britain and United States began challenging laws that denied them right to property after they are married (Deere, 2011). According to the doctrine of coverture under the common law, husbands were controlling real estates and wages of their wives after marriage. In 1840s, state legislatures in both countries passed statutes that were referred to as Married Women Property Acts. These statutes protected women’s property from the control of their husbands and their husband’s creditors. The court also ensured that women are not forced to sell their property by their husbands.
Inequality in the working place
Women’s struggle to fight for equality was pressurized by the oppression they were subjected to in the workplace under capitalism. Some of the discriminations they are subjected to in the workplace include obstacle to promotions, unequal payment rates and harassment on the job. They started a women’s movement that resulted to enactment of Equal Pay Act in 1963. The act states that both men and women should be paid equally for equal work. This Act has not been fully implemented as their aim was to minimize the wage gap between men and women but it is still high. Women are also fighting against minimum-wage work. Nowadays, more women are working but receiving little wages as they are historically known to cope with such working conditions.
Women in the labor movement
As the majority of women are in the workforce, many are faced with needs such as family leave, childcare and maternity. This has forced women to struggle fighting for their rights as workers and women with responsibilities. They have tried to fight for their rights through the use of media and organizing industrial strikes. For instance, in 1860, women workforce in of shoe workers in Lynn, Massachusetts organized their first successful strike. In the United States, recent major victories in the organized unions have been among nursing home workers, hospital technicians and workers, and health care home workers. These jobs are predominantly occupied by women that show success in their effort to fight for equality and their rights.
Struggle for equality of all women is a political struggle. It involves a fight for basic rights and human dignity championed by women and a few men. The struggle has been faced by different challenges hindering effective implementation.
Social and cultural factors
Different countries such as Arabic practice traditions, tribal, and authoritative customs that influence democratic processes and politics. Such societies create a framework that effective public participation enforces and requires women to take up their traditional inherited roles. Women are confined to take the role of home maintenance and the assurance of family needs inside the house (Rawabdeh, 2009). This contributes to decisive manifestation of political participation in marginalization of women in favor of men.
Most of the women political participation has been hindered by social obstacles related to religion. For instance, in most of the Islamic countries such as Jordanian, there are some fundamentals of religion that restricts women from participating in political life (Charkasi, 2010). Though their Islamic religion allows and encourages women to participate in political matters, such religious fundamentals prohibit them by giving certain perceptions and ideologies.
Economic situation has a negative impact upon the women participation in parliamentary elections as well as in political life. The monetary costs used in elective campaigns and fee required to participate in the House of Representatives affects the women in lower, and middle classes. This hinders women from participating as it is more than they can afford. This case happens in countries like Jordanian where politicians are authorized to pay some amount of money.
From a political perspective, political environment leading to political life in some Arabic countries such as Jordanian have been disadvantageous upon women in politics. The election laws in such countries prevent women from participating in political affairs. This is an obstacle towards fighting against gender inequality as women do not get chances to air their views. These struggles and the challenges facing women led to the formation of international organizations that are aimed at fighting for women equality.
Organizations fighting for women rights
International Council of Women
It became the first organization for women to operate across national boundaries with an aim of advocating human rights for women. In April 1888, they organized a meeting for women leaders in Washington D.C. The meeting comprised of 80 speakers and 49 delegates representing 53 women’s organizations from nine countries. These countries include United States, Canada, Ireland, India, England, France, Denmark, and Norway. The council helped in ensuring that women’s grievances are heard at international level. Today it comprises of 70 countries with their headquarters in Lasaunne. In UK, it led to the opinion of legal equality to gain favor. This was through the extensive women employment in areas that were dominated by men during both world wars.
National Organization for Women
It was started in 1966 with an aim of bringing equality for all women. It was an important group as it fought for equal Rights Amendment (Reger, 2008). Though it was meant to guarantee women equal treatment, critics feared that it might deny women right of financial support from their husbands. The amendment did not last long as it was not ratified by enough states and died in 1982.
Women for Women International
It was stated as a nonprofit humanitarian organization to give moral and practical support to women survivors of war. It helps them in rebuilding their lives through giving them emotional counseling and direct financial support, training them where necessary, educating them on their rights, job skills training, health education and small business development.
National Council of Women of Canada
It is an advocacy organization of Canada based in Ottawa with an aim of improving women conditions, communities and families. The council is concerned with women’s immigration, suffrage, health care, mass media, education and environment. It helped in fighting for women rights in Canada being the old advocacy organization in the country.
Association for the defense and protection of women’s rights in Saudi Arabia
It was implemented with an intention of providing activists for women rights. Though the group is not licensed, it has tried to fight for women rights. The association has some set goals that include women representation in sharia courts and minimum age of girls’ marriage. It also advocated for women to be allowed to take of their personal affairs in government agencies, protection from domestic violence and forced divorce.
In conclusion, women are required to receive equal treatment as given to men. They have struggled for equality for a long time, but their rights are still neglected and treated unequally in different public sectors. The existing local and international organizations should be backed up with the required support to ensure equal rights and treatment for both men and women. Through the women organizations, some achievements have been made such as voting rights, holding of public offices, and ownership of property. As this is not enough, a lot needs to be done as equality among all people leads to economic development.
Blanchfield, L., & Margesson, R. (2009). International violence against women. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Curry, J., & Messina, L. (2010). Women’s rights.New York: H.W. Wilson.
Hill, A. (2011). Reimagining equality: stories of gender, race, and finding home. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press.
Marsden, L. R. (2012). Canadian women & the struggle for equality. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
Paludi, M. A. (2010). Feminism and women’s rights worldwide. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger.