When you are first faced with the task of writing a long essay or term paper it can be intimidating, but you make your job and the reader’s job much easier by following some basic rules of thumb. Of course, if your professors offer you any specific guidelines about writing be sure to follow those first. Otherwise, incorporate the advice that follows into your papers wherever appropriate.
Of course, papers should always be typed, double-spaced on 8-1/2 x 11 paper on one side of the page only, and letter-quality print or better is always expected. Often you are expected to supply a cover sheet giving the date, your name, the title of the paper, the class, and the professor’s name. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and if there are a good number of them, then separate lists of tables and figures at the beginning of the paper may be expected. Tables and figures should always have descriptive captions, and if they come directly from sources, the sources must be specifically credited in the captions with the same citation style that you use throughout the paper.
A paper’s title should be succinct and definitive, individual and informational. Clearly, the title "An Overview of the Hydraulic Fracturing of Methane-Bearing Coal Formations" is more complete, satisfying, and informative than "Hydraulic Fracturing." The title is important because it announces the paper’s specific content and typically serves as a pathway to the paper’s thesis.
Your introduction is your opportunity to be at your most individual. You should get your reader’s attention immediately by announcing the paper’s subject or by launching into a relevant scenario or narrative that informs or illustrates your overall argument. A paper illustrating the costly effects of poor mine design, for instance, might open with the scenario of how a poorly designed pillar at a salt mine in Louisiana once collapsed, fracturing the surface above and draining an entire lake into the mine. A paper on the supply and demand of nickel might begin by straightforwardly announcing that the paper will explain the uses of nickel, detail its market structure, and use data to forecast the future supply and demand of the metal.
In brief, a paper’s introduction should define and limit the paper’s scope and purpose, indicate some sense of organization, and, whenever possible, suggest an overall argument. Another important principle in technical writing is that the introduction should be problem-focused, giving the reader enough background so that the paper’s importance and relationship to key ideas are clear. A rule of thumb about the introduction’s length: about 5-10% of the entire paper.
As examples of how creative an introduction can be, here are the opening lines from a geography paper and a paper on optics, both of which use narrative technique to arouse our interest. Note how the first excerpt uses an "I" narrator comfortably while the second excerpt does not use "I" even though the writer is clearly reflective about the subject matter. The first excerpt is from a paper on the generic nature of America’s highway exit ramp services; the second is from a paper on shape constancy.
The observation struck me slowly, a growing sense of déjà vu. I was driving the endless miles of Interstate 70 crossing Kansas when I began to notice that the exits all looked the same. . . .
Our eyes often receive pictures of the world that are contrary to physical reality. A pencil in a glass of water miraculously bends; railroad tracks converge in the distance. . . .
Thesis Statement / Objective
Most papers have outright thesis statements or objectives. Normally you will not devote a separate section of the paper to this; in fact, often the thesis or objective is conveniently located either right at the beginning or right at the end of the Introduction. A good thesis statement fits only the paper in which it appears. Thesis statements usually forecast the paper’s content, present the paper’s fundamental hypothesis, or even suggest that the paper is an argument for a particular way of thinking about a topic. Avoid the purely mechanical act of writing statements like "The first topic covered in this paper is x. The second topic covered is y. The third topic is . . ." Instead, concretely announce the most important elements of your topic and suggest your fundamental approach—even point us toward the paper’s conclusion if you can.
Here are two carefully focused and thoughtfully worded thesis statements, both of which appeared at the ends of introductory paragraphs:
This paper reviews the problem of Pennsylvania’s dwindling landfill space, evaluates the success of recycling as a solution to this problem, and challenges the assumption that Pennsylvania will run out of landfill space by the year 2020.
As this paper will show, the fundamental problem behind the Arab-Israeli conflict is the lack of a workable solution to the third stage of partition, which greatly hinders the current negotiations for peace.
Body Paragraphs / Section Headings
Never simply label the middle bulk of the paper as "Body" and then lump a bunch of information into one big section. Instead, organize the body of your paper into sections by using an overarching principle that supports your thesis, even if that simply means presenting four different methods for solving some problem one method at a time. Normally you are allowed and encouraged to use section headings to help both yourself and the reader follow the flow of the paper. Always word your section headings clearly, and do not stray from the subject that you have identified within a section.
As examples, I offer two sets of section headings taken from essays. The first is from Dr. Craig Bohren’s "Understanding Colors in Nature" (1), which appeared in a 1990 edition of Earth & Mineral Sciences; the second is from a student’s paper on the supply and demand of asbestos.
Section Headings From "Understanding Colors In Nature"
- Color By Scattering: The Role of Particle Size
- Color By Scattering: The Positions of Source and Observer
- The Blue Sky: The Role of Multiple Scattering
- Color By Absorption in Multiple-Scattering Media
- Color by Absorption: Microscopic Mechanisms are Sometimes Elusive
Section Headings From "Asbestos: Supply and Demand"
- Industry Structure
- The Mining and Properties of Asbestos
- World Resources and Reserves
- Byproducts and Co-products
- Economic Factors and Supply and Demand Problems
- Uses of and Substitutes for Asbestos
- The Issue of Health on Supply and Demand
Just by considering the section headings in the above examples, we can begin to see the fundamental structures and directions of the essays, because both sets of headings break the paper topic into its natural parts and suggest some sort of a movement forward through a topic. Note how these headings—as all section headings should—tell us the story of the paper and are worded just as carefully as any title should be.
Most importantly, then, you must use your section headings in the same way that you use topic sentences or thesis statements: to control, limit, and organize your thinking for your reader’s sake.
Most papers use "Conclusion" as a heading for the final section of the text, although there are times when headings such as "Future Trends" will serve equally well for a paper’s closing section. When you are stuck for a conclusion, look back at your introduction; see if you can freshly reemphasize your objectives by outlining how they were met, or even revisit an opening scenario from the introduction in a new light to illustrate how the paper has brought about change. Your conclusion should not be a summary of the paper or a simple tacked-on ending, but a significant and logical realization of the paper’s goals.
Beware of the temptation to open your final paragraph with "In conclusion," or "In summary," and then summarize the paper. Instead, let your entire conclusion stand as a graceful termination of an argument. As you write your conclusion, concentrate on presenting the bottom line, and think of the word’s definition: a conclusion is an articulated conviction arrived at on the basis of the evidence you have presented.
What follows is an excerpt from a conclusion to a paper entitled "Exercise in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Women." Note how the conclusion reflects directly on the paper’s hypothesis and spells out the bottom line, gracefully bringing closure to the paper’s argument:
The majority of evidence presented in this paper supports the hypothesis that exercise positively affects bone mineral density in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Significantly, exercise has been shown to increase bone mineral density in premenopausal women even after the teenage years, and it helps preserve the bone mass achieved in the following decades. There is also evidence that exercise adds a modest, yet significant amount of bone mass to the postmenopausal skeleton. As these findings demonstrate, women of all ages can benefit by regular weight-bearing exercise, an increased intake of calcium-rich foods, and—for postmenopausal women—the maintenance of adequate estrogen levels. For all women, it is never too late to prevent osteoporosis or lessen its severity by making appropriate lifestyle choices.
Any sources cited must be correctly listed on a References page using the Author-Year or Number system (see Chapter 5 of this handbook).
Smoking tobacco is probably one of the worst habits humankind has developed. Originating as a tradition of the Native Americans, practiced mostly on special occasions, smoking has gradually become a kind of mass addiction. Due to the efforts of tobacco companies seeking to increase their sales, people started smoking more and more often; the evolution of a more traditional pipe to a cigarette took some time, but eventually tobacco became more affordable and easier to use (you now simply need to light it up, instead of having to always carry a tobacco pouch, stuff a pipe, puff it, and so on). As a result, deaths and health issues connected to tobacco consumption became a worldwide concern.
A popular belief is that it is nicotine that kills. It is only partially true: although nicotine does harm one’s health (mostly affecting the cardiovascular system), it is the tar, carbon monoxide, hard particles contained in cigarette smoke, and a bunch of toxic emissions and heavy metals that deal the most damage. Nicotine causes addiction, and the smoke does the rest.
Nowadays, there are alternatives to analogue tobacco smoking: the widely popular electronic cigarettes. Although it is hotly debated whether e-cigarettes are harmful to smokers’ health or not, it is hard to argue that substituting cigarettes with these devices does more good than bad, since they possess a number of advantages that cannot be neglected easily. And whereas smoking still remains a dangerous and unacceptable addiction, e-cigarettes might be a decent way to break free of it.
Electronic cigarettes deliver nicotine to a smoker not through burning (which obviously implies inhaling harmful and toxic smoke), but through the evaporation of nicotine-containing liquids. An e-cigarette heats up the liquid in a special container called an atomizer; the liquid evaporates, and through this vapor a smoker receives their dose of nicotine. Thus, the process of nicotine consumption in this case should be called “vaping,” not “smoking.” These liquids usually comprise glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propanediol, and some other components (NCBI). Although some of them are not completely harmless, the chemical composure of e-cigarette liquids is definitely safer than the one of a regular cigarette. However, thorough control over the composure of these liquids should be established, and the usage of such components as ethylene glycol and propanediol should probably be banned. Still, if a smoker does not plan to quit, he or she might want to consider using e-cigarettes instead of real tobacco.
Another good reason for a smoker to start using e-cigarettes is that the aforementioned liquids can contain different amounts of nicotine. A heavy smoker might want to start vaping using liquids containing up to 24 milligrams of nicotine, and the good news for them is that it is possible to gradually decrease the dose until zero milligrams are present.
Although some smokers might experience physical symptoms when trying to quit smoking tobacco, in the majority of cases, it is a strong psychological component that does not let a smoker give up their addiction. It can be assumed that there are five main components of this psychological addiction: 1) believing in the relaxing/stimulating effect of nicotine that helps a smoker deal with stressful situations; 2) a smoker’s need to “keep hands busy” when bored, waiting for something, feeling nervous, and so on; 3) socializing with “fellow smokers”; 4) unconsciously and “automatically” following the habit; 5) the fear that if a smoker quits, he or she will lose something valuable, a source of psychological support or pleasure. Besides, some smokers find it aesthetic to inhale/exhale smoke, or have other reasons to continue tobacco consumption. Generally speaking, smoking is a behavioral pattern consisting of repeating situations and reactions. Without neglecting or challenging these reasons, it can be said that an e-cigarette is probably a safer alternative for a person who does not want to give up nicotine. They still deliver nicotine to a smoker’s body (thus fulfilling the reasons 1 and 5); they disrupt automatic smoking described in points 2 and 4 (since e-cigarettes function differently from their traditional analogues); they allow a person to continue socializing with other smokers during breaks at work, or on other occasions, as mentioned in point 3. But, while performing the same functions as regular cigarettes, electronic devices are safer and more socially acceptable.
In addition, a purely aesthetic reason to prefer e-cigarettes over their analogues: when evaporated, the liquids taste and smell better than tobacco. They are sold in a variety of flavors: melons, apples, cherry, tropical fruit, mint, blueberry, and so on. At the same time, regular tobacco smells and tastes awful not only for the non-smokers, but for a smoking person as well. So, why not stop poisoning oneself with toxic smoke, and at least substitute it with pleasantly smelling vapor?
Nicotine addiction in any of its forms, regardless of whether it is smoking or vaping, is a huge problem for addicts. It leads to a number of severe, chronic diseases and even to death. At the same time, there might be a healthier alternative for those smokers who realize the harm they cause to themselves, but who cannot yet give up their addiction. Electronic cigarettes are nowadays considered to be safer than regular cigarettes. Liquids used in these e-cigarettes contain fewer toxic elements, and do not include the products that are commonly burned in cigarettes. Vapor from e-cigarettes is mostly harmless to non-smokers; it tastes and smells better, which makes smoking e-cigarettes a less reproached habit. Finally, many smokers might discover that e-cigarettes do not obstruct their reasons to continue smoking, while making it possible to decrease the amounts of consumed nicotine and to eventually break the habit. Therefore, without praising or advertising e-cigarettes, it can still be stated that they are a more preferable alternative for smokers.
- “Electronic Cigarettes: Overview of Chemical Composition and Exposure Estimation.” NCBI. BioMed Central, 2014. Web. 14 Nov. 2016.
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