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Terrorism And Naxalism In India Essay

The Man is a social animal. Since the beginning of the evolution, we started living in groups called the communities. When a group of people lives together there are high chances of clashes in their ideologies and the way they live and that gave birth to terrorism. Terrorism in India has become a major issue. To create awareness about the terrorism, schools, colleges and institutes across India organize many competitions like debates, speeches, essay writing, quizzes, also students are asked to write paragraphs in their board exams on a topic like Terrorism in India. So here we are to help you. We are giving the core information about the terrorism in India. You can use this information and modify it according to your needs. This information will also help you to prepare yourself for the Group Discussions(GD). Terrorism in India is also one of the prominent GD topics asked. So let’s start.

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Essay on Terrorism in India Speech, Article


Terrorism is one of the major problems faced by India and also the whole world. Along with terrorism, there are other major problems faced by India, such as Corruption, Black money, huge population, Illiteracy and many other. These problems are somehow correlated with each other.

Terrorism can be defined in simple words as the unlawful acts done by individuals or group of people, using systematical use of violence to intimidate a population or government to fulfil their political, religious, or ideological goals. Terrorism in India is increased rapidly after the independence and now has become one of the major problems faced by India. The existence of terrorism in India can be seen repeatedly in areas such as Jammu and Kashmir, east-central and south-central India (Naxalism). According to National Security Advisor M K Narayanan, there are as many as 800 terrorist cells operating in the country. According to media and experts, Pakistan is alleged for the terrorist activities in India by its Inter-Services Intelligence(ISI), but Pakistan Government denies it.

Causes/Reasons of Terrorism in India

There are following reasons/root causes behind the terrorist activities in India.

Religious Causes

Religion is one of the important aspects of terrorism in India. The maximum number of terrorist incidents and deaths of innocent civilians have occurred due to religious terrorism. The misconceptions about the religion and brainwashing by the terrorist groups make the terrorist kill people in the name of religion. The religious terrorism can be highly seen in Jammu Kashmir areas, where Muslims belonging to different organizations took to terrorism for conflicting objectives. Some have the agenda of merging India’s J&K state with Pakistan. In Punjab, some Sikh elements belonging to different organizations took to terrorism to demand the creation of an independent state called Khalistan for the Sikhs.

Economic Causes

The economic factors such as rural unemployment, the absence of land reforms, exploitation of poor labourers by landowners, etc have given rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various Marxist/Maoist groups operating under different names. Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar are highly affected by the terrorism caused by the economic problems.

Ethnic causes

Due to feelings of ethnic separateness, the terrorism caused by ethnic conflicts can be seen in Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur states of India.

Social Causes

Social problems like lack of education, poverty, unemployment, lack of basic facilities like healthcare, transport etc resulting into the rage against the government are the social causes of terrorism in India.

So, these were the causes/reasons behind the terrorism in India. Now lets how the terrorism affects and impacts the society, economy and people etc. Following are the impacts and effects of terrorism in India.

Impacts/Effects of Terrorism in India

Terrorism definitely lives long-lasting effect on any country. Following are the impacts or effects of terrorism in India.

Human Injuries, deaths, and Trauma

The objective of the terrorists is to fulfil their goals by creating chaos and by killing people. They usually choose crowded places to attack so that they can hurt a maximum number of people. Terrorist attacks cause a huge number of deaths, injuries to victims and the post-traumatic stress happens in the victim’s mind by witnessing such a terror.

Loss of Infrastructure

Terrorists use explosives to destroy the places and that creates a huge damage to the buildings and infrastructure. Such kind of terrorist attacks leaves a severe impact on the economy.

 Economic Effects

Terrorist attacks affect the reputation of any country. It discourages the foreign investors from investing in the businesses in India. The budget spent on defence and security purposes also increase. The tourism industry is also affected by the terrorist attacks as the travellers feel unsafe in India.

Social and Political Instability

Terrorist attacks leave long-lasting effects on people as well as the government. The political stability is hampered because of the chaos caused by the terrorist attack. People’s minds are induced by the fear and unreliability of the government.

Terrorist Attacks in India

There are so many incidents of terrorism have happened in India. Some of the well-known and infamous terrorist attacks are 1993 Bombay bombings, 26/11 terrorist attack in Mumbai, 2016 Uri attack, Mumbai train bombings in 2006, attack on Red Fort in 2000 and much more. The list can be seen here.

Global Terrorism

Almost every country in the world has been affected by the terrorism. Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria are the countries which are the most affected by the terrorism. Terrorist organisation ISIS is the reason behind the rising terrorism in the middle east regions. ISIS/ISIL, AL-QAEDA, Taliban, Boko Haram, Lashkar-E-Toiba, Naxalites these are some of the major terrorist organisations in the world.

The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) is a report published annually which consists of a comprehensive summary of the key global trends and patterns in terrorism since 2000. According to the Global Terrorism Index, the global terrorism is losing its power. The number of deaths caused by the terrorist activities is decreasing from last two years. But the number of countries affected by the terrorism is increased.  

Types of Terrorism in India

The terrorism in India is divided into four groups, which are Ethno-nationalist terrorism, Religious terrorism, Left-wing terrorism, Narcoterrorism. Let’s see every group in detail.

Ethno-nationalist Terrorism: In this form of terrorism the focus is on emphasizing the views of one ethnic group against another and creating a separate State within India or in a neighbouring country.

Religious Terrorism: As the name suggests this kind of terrorism focuses on creating conflicts about religions. Mumbai 26/11 terror attack in 2008 from an Islamic group in Pakistan is an example of religious terrorism in India.

 Left-Wing Terrorism: Left-wing terrorism focuses on overthrowing the conservative or capitalist systems and replace them with communist or socialist societies. Maoist violence in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are examples of left-wing terrorism in India.

Narcoterrorism: This type of terrorism focuses on creating illegal narcotics traffic zones. Drug violence in northwest India is an example of narco-terrorism in India.

Cyber Terrorism: This type of terrorism takes place on the Internet. in This type of terrorism, government websites are hacked, confidential information is accessed and leaked, government databases are accessed and modified etc.


Terrorism is one of the major problems faced by India and the whole world. Terrorism threatens the law and world peace. It is a threat to the humanity. The terrorism and violence should be shunned. Taking appropriate actions and spreading awareness can help to reduce and stop the terrorism. Terrorism is the reason behind the death of thousands of people over the years, hence terrorism cannot be justified and it must not be tolerated.

Check out our other articles for various essays, speeches, and paragraphs. 

Tips for Speech on Terrorism in India

  1. Never mug up the speech script as it is. That sounds like a robot, your audience will not connect with it.
  2. Rather than reciting the complete script, note down only important bullet points and speak from your heart. When you speak from the heart you might fumble once or twice but it connects with your audience. We are humans after all we all make mistakes.
  3. If you are confident enough try to be interactive with your listeners. Ask them questions.
  4. If you are a parent don’t force kids to mug it up. Help them to understand the topics and it’s important. In real life, you just can’t survive with mugged up answers, isn’t it? Today’s generation is 10 times smarter than our generation they can easily understand the topic.
  5. If you are speaking in public for the first time then you better try a speech in front of parents, siblings or friends. Ask them feedback and revisit the script. Or else at least try speech in front of the mirror.

Tips for Essay on Terrorism in India

  1. You can write an essay in story format too, take an imaginary person and tell a story on given topic from his/her perspective.
  2. Essay generally have three main parts, Introduction, impact or more detailed info and then summary or conclusion. Don’t use headers in the essay. But you should divide the essay into these 3 logical sections.
  3. Try to maintain a flow between sections. Carry forward a point from the last paragraph and then take it forward
  4. It is important to have a conclusion or summary for an essay. You don’t need to be positive all the time for conclusion, it can be a mix of both emotions. Try to have an inspiring, positive, euphoric conclusion.

Tips for Paragraph Writing on Terrorism in India

  1. Generally, you will have 2 section in paragraph writing, it will be shorter than an essay.
  2. Paragraph are generally facts based rather than interactive or story based.
  3. You can have headings for paragraph if allowed.

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Should Maoist be treated on par with terrorist and anti-nationals?

By Pratibha Sharma

Maoists in India have become the gravest threat to our country. The extent and magnitude of the Maoists operations are so gigantic that they are affecting the social, economic and political and even the well being of our country.

No wonder Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has described the Maoist as the biggest challenge to our national security. Maoist also called Naxals in Indian context refers to the armed insurgency by the cadres of Bhakpa Male, Tritiya Prastuti Committee, and People's Liberation Front of India etc.

The followers of Maoism believe that the means of production and resources existing in the world are concentrated in the hands of exploiters. Hence they like to overthrow them, even if it means by armed means and should be re-placed by a system that is to be in the hands of the masses.

In India, Maoists have planned to overthrow the democratic system of governance by 2050 and replace it by their own system of governance gain complete control over the country. Maoism has originated in India from West Bengal at a place called Naxalbari. In the initial days, it was a motley collection of students, farmers and intellectuals that was led by two leaders Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal.

Initially those who felt dissatisfied and neglected joined this extreme left bandwagon. But soon Maoists have spread to the other states. Maoist rebels now control and run a parallel government in as many as 10 states. Over the last few years, more people have died as a result of Maoist insurgency than due to any other kind of militant movement in the country.

The Maoists have complete disregard for democracy, laws and human values. They have been committing crimes like abduction and killings with impunity. Whether it is abduction and killing of Jharkhand policemen 'Francis Induwar' or the attack on the convoy of a political party in Bastar, all demonstrate the ruthless attitude of the Maoists.

According to intelligence agencies estimates, the total number of Maoists cadres in country could be about 50,000 and the majority of them being below 25. The Maoist have an annual budget of rupee 10,000 crore. Majority of it comes in form of extortion (levy), illicit drugs cultivation and covert aid. On an average, Maoists demand a levy of 15-20% on any government or private funded activity. As a result, no commercial entity is willing to work in the areas of Maoist dominance. Hence the affected areas have no roads, factories or even cottage industries. Thus the people there do not get any jobs and are ultimately forced to join the rank and file of the Maoists.

Recently, a few splinter groups have broken off from the main Maoist group CPI-ML and formed their own organizations. These groups are fighting regular turf wars for dominance and control over their respective areas. In the beginning the Maoist movement may have been one of some disgruntled elements but now it has completely evolved into armed insurgent groups.

Maoists from the very beginning have been open to receiving foreign aid and assistance. It's proved by the recovery of foreign made weapons from them. It also found out that trainers from countries like China, Philippines, and Ireland have arrived in our country to provide training in Guerrilla warfare to the Maoists. The Maoists have also been trying to join hands with the various international communist insurgent groups such as the Nepali Maoists, FARC, Irish republican army etc. It has been confirmed that Maoists have links with the Kashmiri separatists and North-East insurgent groups.

All these instances clearly points that Maoists are anti-national elements and be dealt accordingly. In dealing with the Maoists, the Indian Penal Code Chapter VI that deals with offences against the state, S.121 Waging war against government, S.124-A sedition which has been further supplemented by laws such as National security Act, should be strictly implemented. A message of deterrence must be sent to them that no enemies of the nation will be tolerated by the Indian leadership or the governing elite. However, care should be exercised to avoid collateral damage and those who have joined the ranks of Maoists forcefully should be allowed to join the mainstream and lead a normal life.

A carrot and stick policy should be adopted and the disgruntled Maoist cadres should be won over by a good rehabilitation package. Recruitment drives and employment counseling camps should be held in the affected areas to rope in unemployed youths. In the Maoist affected area establishing block offices, primary and secondary schools, hospitals, village panchayat offices etc should be the priority. Civil authorities should make sure that beneficial measures such as public distribution system reach the needy speedily.

Lessons should be learnt from the Andhra Pradesh which was one of the worst sufferers of Maoist violence. However by adopting a multi-pronged strategy, the government has succeeded in eliminating the Maoists from that state. The special police force 'Greyhounds' established by the Andhra Pradesh authorities succeeded in almost wiping out the Maoists from state.

This was quickly followed by establishing all necessary infrastructure (like roads, schools, hospitals and beneficiary schemes) to bring about the oppressed and deprived people on par with the mainstream society. Andhra Pradesh as a result today is free from clutches of the Maoists.

Maoism didn't take shape in one day; neither will it go away in one day. Fighting Maoism will take years. If the measures mentioned are implemented rigorously, the days are not far when India will be free from all these trouble mongering entities. If India has to race towards its ultimate goal of providing peace and security to its citizens, then the problem of Maoist insurgency has to be sternly dealt with.

---By Pratibha Sharma

By Abhishek Dixit

It is the duty of the government to make the things difficult which are wrong, easy the things which are right for the people. This single line quotation itself narrates the role of ideal government for its people to maintain the peace, harmony and peaceful coexistence of the people in the society.

But unfortunately in case of Maoists/naxalites, our governments are completely failed to provide the remedy of their problems. Rather than making things easy for them government has made the things difficult for them where they were forced to take weapon in their hands rather than sitting and talk with the government representatives. In such scenarios where people are forced to take the weapon to redress their grievances cannot be termed as terrorists and anti-national.

It was the summer of 1967 where in a small village of West Bengal name Naxalbari people rose up against the government system and they took the weapon in their hands and over the time they took much of eastern and central India in their grip and was declared as terrorists by Government of India .Since they were following the ideology of Mao (leader of China) and they were trying to run their own government so they were declared as anti-national or terrorists but did we try to find out and resolve their problems before they were forced to take up the arms the answer is "NO".

If we try to analyze the root cause of the problem of Maoists/Naxalites then we come across two main reasons first is "non implementation of 5th & 9th schedules by government in the tribal areas and second is the centuries old "caste system".

As per the 5th schedule of our constitution Government will declare the schedule areas in the country and accordingly provide the rights over the natural resources in those areas as per the provisions of 9th schedule.

But these provisions are misused for one's own welfare rather than the welfare of tribal people. Central and state governments gave licenses to private companies for mining and cutting in these areas as they were considered to be mineral rich areas of our country where no share was provided to local people and also no attention was paid to their dilapidated situation because of loss of habitat and earnings out of these areas on which they were dependent from a long time.

This provided the chances for the growth of local leadership since national/state leadership was failed to provide solution to their problems.

Second, since most of these people belong to schedule caste and tribes and they were away from mainstream society for a long time so called "forward" people of the society could not accommodate these people into the mainstream of the society and these tribal people felt a sense of separatism. Icing on the cake is done by repressive policies of government against their rise as a militant organization.

In Chattisgarh where the local people were feeling like "between devil and deep blue sea" because on one hand Naxalites were forcing them to help while government supported "salwa jhadum" was forcing them not to help and in such situation with so many innocent people were forced to take the weapon as it was the weapon which was helping these people not the government.

So the people who are rose for their own welfare against the exploitation by government and local people cannot be termed as terrorists or anti-national because they have some causes that are not resolved by anything other than weapon. These people are our own people which if given a chance can contribute immensely in the growth of our country so in place of treating them as terrorists government should seriously listen to their problem, redress their issues and should try to bring them on round table for talk rather than in the battlefield where only the blood will flow of both the sides rather than any solution will come.

It was well said by Gandhi ji "an eye for an eye will make the whole world blind" .So the solution resides in talking, resolving issue and providing them a sense of security on financial front, living front, social front so that these people could also come in the mainstream of our society and contribute for the betterment of our country, our society, our people.

--Abhishek Dixit

By Arjun Tyagi

Maoist literally means people who are follower of Maoism and Maoism is actually the thought of a Chinese leader Mao Zedong. Basically Maoism which was a revolt of peasants against their exploitation by bourgeoisie .It was a people's war at that time. The origin of revolutionary Marxism in India ,particularly Maoism ,are typically traced to 1967 ,when radical left parted from Communist Party of India (Marxist) and formed Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) which are Maoists of India.They supported a local peasant uprising in Naxalbari (West Bengal).Thus CPI(M-L) came to be known as 'Naxalites'.

Maovadi problem has a long history in India. Over the years, it is a movement that spread in a white colour changed from black to a dark shade. This problem is not original and not a terrorist movement in the cross border terrorism, it funds the State of production. This problem originated in the Indian independence. Indian Maoists dismiss Indian government as a sham. The naxal movement of a noble nature, "maovadi" took shape as the problem has become tarnished. The causes of the Maoist movement in India are structural. Economic, political and cultural dimensions are closely linked.

The first is the economic situation which is exploited by Naxalites and their extreme left ideology. It seems much like a catch-22 situation. On the one hand, India has experienced relatively fast economic growth, which has led to increased levels of national wealth. To facilitate and continue this development, businesses need more land and natural resources such as minerals. On the other hand, this economic growth has been uneven among regions, and has widened the disparity between the rich and the poor.

Proponents of these businesses argue that these regions need economic development, if they are to catch up with their richer counterparts. The Indian aboriginals, known as adivasis, live these richly forested lands, which are wanted for development by businesses. The conflict between economic progress and aboriginal land rights continues to fuel the Naxalite's activities.

Their strongest bases are in the poorest areas of India. They are concentrated on the tribal belt such as West Bengal, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh where locals experience forced acquisition of their land for developmental projects. At the start this movement was a poor men's voice but today its aptness is doubtful. Today this conflict between Naxalites and Indian Government has taken a different form. Today for the rights of tribal people Naxalites or Maoists they are somehow crossing some limits on humanitarian grounds. That humanitarian ground on which in the past their movement was based on.

Naxalites or Maoists are brutally killing innocent policemen who are performing their duty in that area. There is no ground on which these killings can be made approved. They are destroying infrastructures created by Indian government. All these activities create instability and insecurity to that area. There are some proof also that these activities are funded by China to create insecurity in India which act as a hindrance to development in these remote areas. Countries like China are supplying arms and ammunition as well as training to them.

Actually Maoists basic demand was getting these poor people at an equal platform to urban people but the havoc they are creating nowadays is opposite to their so called actual aim on which their ideology is based. It can be seen from their recent killing of many congress leaders. What Maoists are doing today is anti national. Killing innocent people and policemen, destroying infrastructure cannot be legitimized for the name of revolt of poor people it's totally anti national .Activity which are creating fear ,insecurity, instability and also they are funded by our country's adversaries can be called as 'terrorism'.

So they should be treated on par with terrorist and anti nationals but military response is not the only option of solution .There should be continuous talk with the local people of the affected area. At last we must remember our country India's policies nad actions are based on principle of non violence .So any violence of any type anywhere in our country is an act of terrorism and anti national activity.

--Arjun Tyagi

By Dharmesh Sharma

The recent tragedy in Chhatisgarh, an ambush carried out by naxalites, left two senior congress leaders and two dozen others dead. The incident once again sparked the blame game between the Centre and the State. However, a counter offensive is now impending. In light of such a stance of government, a pertinent and fundamental question still lingers on, that is whether to treat the Maoists on par with terrorists. Sometime back, the Prime Minister, in one of his speech condemned Naxalism and declared it as the most serious National security threat to India.

Born way back in Naxalbari village of West Bengal, as a resentment against the local landlords, Naxalism has, since then expanded its foothold in nearly one-third of the country. The Naxalites are affiliated to Maoist ideologies of revolution through arms carried out by the peasant class to overthrow the State and establish a People's Government.

In a functional democracy such as that of India such political objectives seem highly inconsistent and absurd. The Maoist disbelieves and derecognizes the State. These cadres of Left Wing Extremism have often sided with the enemies during testing times of Indo-China war of 1962 and also in 1971. This clearly reflects their anti nationalistic attitudes. The usual 'Jehadi' terrorists have religion as their motivation; however both forms of terrorism have waged a war against India which is tantamount to Sedition. The 'Red Terror' works from within and is even more complicated and difficult to handle as a direct face off severely affects civilians.

Most Maoist prone areas are devoid of basic facilities of infrastructure, health and education, which the people are rightly entitled to, being citizens of India. The fruits of development are blocked by the Maoists. They are against the developmental schemes of Government and themselves are involved in fund raising by entering into nexus with the Capitalist class with whom they stand in ideological contradictions, reflecting their double standards. They often force people to camouflage them and even launch an attack against the paramilitary forces. They coerce the young locals to join their cadres and misguide them, ruining their lives. Hence, their claim to be the trustees of the people and 'Gandhians with Guns' sounds more a rhetoric, typical of politicians and not a revolutionaries at all.

The clashes between the paramilitary and Naxalites have often led to civil casualties adding to the discontent of the people. The innocent and misguided villagers are made to believe that the State is their enemy. Some stray incidents of crimes such as rape and coercion by few personnel has given the opportunity to the Maoists to harp upon which they use it to their advantage. This has lent an ill repute to the armed forces amongst the locals.

However with no clear cut out political objective, such a struggle is futile and unsustainable. Also their natural allies like China and Nepal are developing healthy political relations with India, much to their disadvantage. Also developmental efforts by the Centre like the Integrated Action Plan scheme in Naxalite prone areas is underway to take fruits of development to the local citizens and take them into confidence for any future operations.

Hence, branding Maoists as terrorists would be no mistake given their stand against Sovereignty and Integrity of India, disbelief in democracy and civil rights, use of arms and ammunitions, and anti developmental stance.

--Dharmesh Sharma

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