Unformatted text preview: Sarawak Campus Assignment Cover Sheet for Undergraduate Programs (for individual and group assignments) This cover sheet is to be attached to all assignments, both hard copy and electronic format SWIN BUR ASSIGNMENT DETAILS iiUnitCode HRM (0003, Unit'l'itle - Human Qesource Mamaeman} iTuﬁte’LabGroup I Lectursrﬁttor-NW...... We Ki Yen Ping Assignment'Title Emplogee Health and Sou—Peg” ix Austmj‘a. ; Due date 2M Od-uber 20] 5 Date Received DECLARATION To be completed if this is an individual assignment I declare that this assignment is my individual work. i have not worked collaboratively nor have I copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person . . ., . ‘ Student‘l To be completed it this Is a group dﬁﬁlgllllleltl We declare that this is a group assignment and that no part of this submission has been copied from any other student's work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for us by another person. ‘stjiiéi'ibéiéis' -sruaemibiiiiiii5a(§sj dissatisﬁed) __ ""scanstalled'i ' W - StUdem 1- i _ , , . . t 3 Studen'tZ ‘ Student3 ‘ Student4 3 Student 5. _ _ MARKER'S COMMENTS :1) ﬁfmee dvlrlume Ewes) matures W20 difrfarerd; fmgmfks . 7.) Owl not: fruvtou umrLLhWS Gunﬁre/liars 1C” acidx aware; clawsst . :9 «We Gucci $hcaﬁca/wnufﬁs of £145 1%: 30 CHO) a 0' I 7/ e? 1 $5: ID Oct 2013. are. ‘ iMérkér’égisAAivlré”. 2.11; EXTENSION CERTIFICATE This assignment has been given an extension by ‘ l- USQ of mfvrrnqenro (rum . Writs) '__. #0 Unit-Convener Lawlrmmn 0% “HP-015% / Canter“ ~— 10 . Extended due :; Date-Received; 3 5 3; g Journals # 51/; date, - . Ly. l’mmmmnw 3/5 Version 2, XX September 2009, Author: Head. Education Quality Unit, Sarawak. This checklist is a live document available on the SUTS intranet; a print copy may not be the latest version SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SARAWAK HRM 10003- Human Resource Management Employee Health & Safety in Australia Lecturer: Mdm. Ki Yen Ping 2‘Id October 2015 How and why Employee Health and Safety has evolved recent years in Australia? HRM 10003 Human Resource Management Occupational Health and safety (OHS) means the physical, physiological and psychosocial conditions of an organisation’s workforce, in terms of aspects of work and the work ntext (De Cieri et al. 2008, p.115) while employee health and safety (EHS) refers to the health and safety workplace for employy/Poor OHS performance is seen as poor HRM, poor ethical, legal and social responsibility Stone 2014, p.662). Similarly, poor EHS equates with poor management and might result in low productivity, reduced job satisfaction, loss of experienced worker and increased labour turnov (Stone 2014, p.662). Work—related injury, illness and death are widely known to be main social and economic issues in Australia and many other industrialised natioﬁe Cieri et al. 2008, p.117). There are approximately 2900 work-related deaths and 650 000 work-rel ted injuries in Australia every year, and annual economic losses are more than $34 bill/kgétone 2014, p.662). The main causes of injury are: vehicle accidents; mechanical failure; falls, trips, slips and heat; radiation and electricity; being hit by a moving object and harm by chemical Stone 2014, p.663). A study shows that 65 per cent of Australia’s top 200 companies do not disclose any information on how they manage workplace safety nyzﬁtone 2014, p.664). Apart from this, 90 per cent of companies do not report any details of their safety record, 96 per cent do not publish safety objectives and 80 per cent do not report a system to manage safety risks/gone 2014, p.665). Health and safe workplace environment is Vital for every employee in order to maximize proﬁt and increase productivity of the cornpan/y (Stone 2014, p.662). Employer is who has the greatest control over the employee’s working environment. However, line managers, HR managers, unions and the employees themselves share the responsibility of employee wellWStone 2014, p.664). Federal and state govemments, investors, professional, and community groups and unions are giving employer pressure to accept increased responsibility for employee health and ,sdfgty (Stone 2014, p.667). In the past of Australia, differences in legislation across the states and territories led to different Ms (De Cieri et al. 2008, p.119). Historically, legislation was required to deal with the increasing risk of injury and illness that arose from the introduction of new machines and workplace environment. Australian OHS regulation was inﬂuenced by developments in the United Kingdom in the 1%. Lord Robens who was an industrialist introduced the concept of duty of care by employers to provide safety workplaces for employ s (De Cieri et a1. 2008, p.120). Williams Report deﬁnes OHS as ‘the protection and maintence of the highest degree of physical, mental and social wellbeing of employees in all ........................ w. 1 .__.........._.._...._.........,.,.m.m.n.N.WaWVw..w.u.u.........................._.._..._......_.__._._.._..--_--.._._._._._.__.__._ HRM 10003 Human Resource Management occupaxio/ns’ (N ankervis et al. 2014, p.513). Most of the Australian legislation followed the Robens and Willaims approaches to the implementation of OHS legislation provisi0ns.. Employers’ duties under the OHS Acts include: providing safe workplaces as well as systems of work that without risks to health; making arrangements for the safe use, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances at work; and providing appropriate and adequate information. and training for employees. However, employees” duties include: not endangering their own or others’ health and safety; and cooperating with measures introduced to protect their own and others’ health and s ety (De Cieri et a1. 2008, p.120). During the 19705, most Australian unions started to show limited interest in OHS iss s (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.508). Besides, the existing OHS legislation was criticised because the legislation did not cover all workers or hazards in the workplace, enforcement of the Acts was conducted by several government agencies, established standards differed from state to state and no systematic reviews occurr (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.512). From the mid-19805, all Australian jurisdictions adopted health and safety legislation that emphasises a duty of care on employers and workers which led by the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) (Stone 2014, p.668). During 19805 and 19903, ergonomists were often employeyuce the incidence by designing workstations to minimize the repetition injuries on wor s (Nankervis et a1. 2014,.p.507). The Federal Government of Australia introduced the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission Act in December of 1985 but it as repealed in 2005 and replaced by the Australian Workplace Safety Standards Act Me Cieri et a1. 2008, p.120). In October 2005 the Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC) replaced the NOHSC to lead and coordinate national efforts to prevent'work-related deaths, injuries and di se (Stone 2014, p.668). The new national OHS laws began between July 2008 and December 2010 with the development and agreement on Model WHS legislation followed by Model Codes of PractiWankervis et a1. 2014, p.515). Under the OHS new laws, employers and employees have new deﬁnition to ensure health and afety protection is extended to all types of workers; new penalties have been established/ﬁtsnkervis et al. 2014, p.515). Australian industry has been subjected to a broad range of Acts and statues regarding occupational risks and hazards (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.510). Common law and National WHS legislation are the law executed in Austr 1a (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.510). In the ﬁrst two decades aﬂer Federation, compensation to workers injured at work was implemented by most Australian states .m.m.n.mw,_,.,....... 2 .......................................................................................................... __ HRM 10003 Human Resource Management (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.516). An Australian Government report shows that more than 300000 Australian workers lodge workers” compensation annually (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.517). The enormous costs deﬁnitely affect organisational proﬁtability which HR managers need to be involved to analyse the trends and develop appropriate programs for employees (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.518). The. underlying principles of the Australian systems are self- regulation where employers are responsible for offering a safe and healthy workplace but is emphasised on risk management rather than detailed government regulation (Stone 2014, p.668). In 1 November 2009, a tripartite body Safe Work Australia began operating as an independent Australian Government statutory agency. It has the responsibility of the development of policy to improve work health and safety and employees’ compensation arrangements across Australia (Safe Work Australia 2015). Safe Work Australia also report the fatalities and injuries occur in Australia ev y year. The requirements of Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) can inﬂuence bu ' they operate in (Safe Work Australia 2015). esses differently depends on which industry I Every employee has the right to work in a health and safety environme (Martin 8.: Media 2011). By creating a health and safety workplace, employers are also protecting themselves. Employers are compliance with OHS Act requirements by providing safe and healthy workplace (Stone 2014, p.665). A hazardous and dangerous workplace may make workers feel that the employer doesn’t care about their well-being/(lértin & Media 2011). It will probably difficult for the employer to retain the skilled or talented workers as they might apply for working with other employer who has better cares of them. Besides, healthy employees with safe and comfortable work environment will perform more productively than employees work in unsafe environme (Martin & Media 2011). Therefore, it is vital for employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace for employees in order to maximize their productivity and proﬁt to sustain the company in this era of globalisation. Additionally, company could have serious f ancial trouble if an employee sue employer because of workplace hazards or inju 'es (Martin & Media 2011). Employees health and safety is protected by the law mentioned before which can be brought into court if an employer owe a duty of care of employees. Employers need to pay an amount of compensation to employees if the. company is found to be guilty. Furthermore, a company image will be damaged if it allows employees to work in avoidable hazard environment (Martin & Media 2011). It will result in loss of customer, increase of competitor and diﬁchuring any loan needed. Page 3 HRM 10003 Human Resource Management In addition, organisation with safe and healthy work environments have lower insurance and beneﬁt costs and experience less damage to plant and equipment (Stone 2014, p.665). Thus, employers should take care of the employee health and safety workplace in order to sustain the company in the future. In Australia, each state and territory has its own workplace health and safety requirements (Safe Work Australia 2015). HR professionals can be involved in strategic, operational, coordinating and administrative roles that support all activities although the success of a WHS program pends largely on managers, supervisors, union representatives and employees themse es (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.518). There are many major issues which HR managers must develop licies to reduce it. Accidents usually happen because of the unsafe acts or unsafe Means (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.519). Commonly, accidents occur in industries that use heavy machinery (e.g. manufacturing and agriculture) or dangerous work systység. transport and construction) (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.519). There are an amount of important activities that all businesses and organisations need to undertake in order to reduce accidents at work cost-effectively (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.522). Just to name a few, comprehensive safety policies, safety awareness programs for all employees, adequate medical, ﬁrst aid systems, ﬁre drills, safety incentives and prevention schemes are those crucial activities to future prevention (Nankervis et a1. 2014, [email protected] Australian workforce is as high as every 160 people have 1 sufferyxérfmoa p.692). A survey found that approximately 40 per cent of HIV/AIDS sufferers experienced unfavourable treatment in the provision of health services while insurance companies discriminated the 20 per cent. Employers should carefully develop acceptable, justiﬁable policies in relation to employees with HIV or AIDS. However, some organisations Eff?! issue a special AIDS policy statemrﬁitias they treat AIDS as other (Jr-m N w disease or conditi (Stone 2008, p.692). part frorg the ﬁssiles of AIDS, employees who live in a regional city or capital city and ﬂy to a further work site e they stay and work for a pre—arranged period time are called y—in, fly—out (FIFO kers (Stone 2014, p.671). A research suggests that 20 per cent of F ers experienced loneliness, marital problems and health issues such as stress, anxiety and depression (Stone 2014, p.672 . FIFO workers are similar to the issue of economy class syndrome which refer blood clots 0 used by f cramped airline seating on long-haul ﬂights (Stone 2008, p.693). Emp oyees suffer from relationship problems and high stress levels are more likely tyne 2014, p.672). Therefore, a scheduled roster or working time table might help t employers to solve the ......................... .. 4 ._-..___...........................mm.mm...Mm....mmmW,.uuuuuuummm.............._._._._.__..__._._-_._._.__._._. For the FIFO workers, sexual harassment can happen in the ﬂight which can cause the victim angry, stress and disinterest on the job. HR manager need to introduce suitable policies, trainin and su ervision to ensure eve em 10 ee’s ri t and ower to work in an 8 W P environment without sexual harassment (Stone 2008, p.69‘63 can be considered to be harshly inﬂ ncing the business environment, undoubtedly ns (Bader, Schuster & Dickmann 2015, p.2016). errori osting a threat for globally operating Based on a former director of the US National Security Agency, industry is now a main target for terrorist groups (Stone 2008, p.694). Employee especially expatéryrsonnel working in es (Stone 2008, p.695). However, a study indicated that only half of the cempanies surveyed had any plan to unsafe locations need to be trained in security and evacuation proc overcome ﬁlmy-91$ (Stone 2008, p.695). It is recommended that company establish a plan in case of crises such as provide employees with security passes or recruit security guard. urthermoregngi‘) a global issue for every employer and employee. A evidence suggests that poorest Australians die from lung cancer at nearly twice the rate of the richest although the cigarettes are expensive (Stone 2008, p.696). A smoke-free workplace can inspire employees to become healthier (SWA). Employees will have better staff morale and satisfaction as well as more productive and less sick leave be taken if they have a smoke- free workplace (SWA). Thus, companies need to enhance the importance of not smoking and rkplace substance abuse is promote ‘quit smoking’ programs to help its workers. "011 (Stone 2008, p.698). A research concerned about alcohol, tobacco and other drug addi done by the Victorian Occupational Health and S ety Commission found that 20 per cent of women employed as managers and sales representatives are drinking unhealthy amounts of alcohol (Stone 2008, p.697). The alcohol ru gray/ems in Australia have cost more than $19 billion per year (Stone 2008, p.697). According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, mental health problems are m 'kely to he suffered by people who smoke, drink heavily and take illegal drugs (Stone 2008, p.699). Obesity has become more concerned by leading companies such as Ford and PepsiCo in recent year (Stone 2008, p.698). A research indicates that the life expectancy of grossly overweight people at 40 can be shortened by obesity (Stone 2008, p.698). In addition, obesity threatens people’s health and causes some diseases like diabetes, heart attacks and some forms of cancer (Stone 2008, p.698). From my .......................... ... 5 ._.-_--..__.__-._...______..._._._...______-_..._.._._._._._.__.__._._._..._...._....................,...a...a.,.._.....r. HRM 10003 Human Resource Management ' ities such as sports day to me? 1. prevent their employees suffering from obesity or other dise es. / The director of the Australian Institute of Criminology said tW a ways of resolving disputes is deeply rooted iu‘Australian society. Violence behaviour has a variety of terms such as air rage, desk rage, road rage and rental rage. A study shows that health welfare and community servmes, restaurants, educatlon, retail, and road and rail transport 1ndustnle§W an L5? ‘ are the most at risk of workplace violence in Australia. Besides, only eucgipanie have developed employee protection programs in Australia (Stone 2014, . . ther than workplace violence, one in four Australian women 3 been subjected to domestic violence which can cause health problem to them. Oneﬁdf the health and safety hazards the workplace (Stone 2014, p.679). Negative anti-social behaviour, workplace ymg is a vital issue for employees, organisations, unions and governmentyécies (Demir, Rodwell & Flower 2013, p.392). Workplace bullying is deﬁned as subtle and negative behaviou syrnbolising aggression, hostility and harm in the context of unequal power M (D’Cruz, Noronha & Beale 2014, p.143 5). Although the author said that bullying cam/mappermn anywhere in the organisation, most bullies are managers (Stone 2014, p.679). 1:l_1_i_l'l,ips said _———" that bullying can result in reduced efﬁciency, decreased productivity and proﬁtability, and increase employee tumoWne 2014, p.680). In my opinion, no employee wants to work in an environment being bullied or discﬁminated every day. It is estimated more than three quarters of a million Australians work from home at le st a couple of days a week which has many attractions for organisations and employees/416 2014, p.678). However, employers are liable for injuries incurred while working at home which decided by court recently. Employers must therefore ensure that home-based workers’ work environment are safe and appr0piiate (Stone 2014, p.678). Work and family conﬂict affects productivity. The traditional way of work has been restructured because of the diversiﬁed working families today (Stone 2014, p.680). Fro n' my perspective, organisation could introduce a more ﬂexible work schedules an hildcare or elder-care assistance to let employees have better work—life balance. __._.__.___._._.____._._.____________. _. . . .._._._._._..._.--____..._._._. 6 v“mm.n.mm.m..m.nmmnmmm.m._..,.mm.mwmmwvWeAwm...i...“mum”......._._...u.u............_...... T50 l-IRM 10003 Human Resource Management become an issue in Australian organisations recent years because of the increasing pressure on employees, legal precedents, and a group of research studies examining its causes and effects (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.522). What is stress? Stress is a condition of strain that inﬂuence one’s emotions, thought processes and physical conditiOn (Stone 2014, p.681); Stress has no clear and agreed deﬁnition (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.522). Hans Selye’s stress and performance model distinguish the positive and negative effects of stress on individual (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.522). Eustress is ‘positive’ stress that comes along with achievement and exhilaration; distress is ‘negative’ stress when employees feel insecure, helpless as the overload job need to be done (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.523). According to Stone, there are four sources of factor can be made related to stress (Stone 2014, p.681). Work factors such as bullying, work load, job insecurity and interpersonal relationships; family factors such as domestic violence, ﬁnancial problems and divorce; personal factors such as age, needs and personality; and external factors such as crime, government laws and economic conditions are those major causes of stress (Stone 2014, p.682). One of the recent studies suggests that 40 per cent of all Australian employees feel stressed at work (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.522). Furthermore, an ACTU study of 10000 workers reported that more than 70 per cent of workers suffer from stress—related health problem such as anger, headaches and non-stop tiredness (Nankervis et al. 2014, p.522). From the research and study above, the organisations in Australia need to establish a strategy to forecast the potential stress symptoms and trends in order to lower the percentage of stressed workers. Shift work is a common feature of many jobs (Nankervis et a1. 2014, p.529). A research study shows that shift work interrupts workers’ body rhythms and increases level of workers’ sickness and result in low productivity (N ankervis et a1. 2014, p.529). Flexible work arrangements (FWAS) are often written into company policies to enhance organisational sensitivity towards health and safety (Timms et a1. 2015, p.83). ABS statistics show that employers are using their powers to introduce greater ﬂexibility in working arrangement (Patrickson & Hartmann 2001,- p.203). With the increased utilisation of FWAs, low turnover and low levels of psychological strain would be found (Timms et a1. 2015, p.83). Employers and HR managers should work closely to develop a suitable shift w arrangement for their employees to maintain or improve the productivity. ......_....._..-..._._..-..._._._._. 7 nnnnnnnn M. .......................................................................................................... as HRM 10003 Human Resource Management In a nutshell, organisations and employers have ethical, legal and business obligations to let their employees working in a health and safety environment (Stone 2014, p.692). Sustaining employee well-being is becoming more important in many workplaces (Kowalski, Lorentto & Redman 2015, p.123). One of the HRM’s major challenges is to implement its function within the law constraints under the government. Organisations and employers successfully manage their business in the safe way will absolutely have a competitive advantage than other companies (De Cieri et a1. 2008, p.143). Employees’ health and safety is a part of every manager’s job but no just the accountability to the HR manager (Stone 2014, p.692). Employees are willing to repay through extra hard work if employers make an effort to do something for the good. of the employees such as health week, ﬂexible time or staff BBQ at after work (Dickson—Swift et a1. 2015, p.146). Although many businesses believe they have ﬁrst aid ready for an emergency, it is better if they have a clearly plan to minimize the plgyees are the assets of the company. Employers are responsible to provide them a co ortable, health and workplace risks and respond to emergencies (Safe Work Australia 2015). E1 safety working environment in order to maximize their proﬁt and ' imize the injuries issues. Page 3 HRM 10003 Human Resource Management Bibliography ader, B, Schuster, T & Dickmann, M 2015, ‘Danger and risk as c dages for HRMihow o manage people in hostile environments’, T he International J rnal of Human Resource Management, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2015-2017. D’Cruz, P, Noronha, E & Beale, D 2014, ‘The workplace bullying—organizat' a1 change @ interface: emerging challenges for human resource management’, The In rnational Journal of Human Resource Management, V01. 25, no. 10, pp. 1434-1459. De Cieri, H, Kramar, R, Noe, RA, Hollenbeck, JR, Gerhart, B & Wright M 2008, Human Resource Management in Australia, 3rd edn, McGraW Hill, Australi professionals: prevalence, causes and consequences’, Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Human @Demir, D, Rodwell, J & Flower, R 2013, ‘Workplace bullying among allied health Resources, no.51, pp. 392—405. Dickson-Swift, V, Fox, C, Marshall, K, Welch, N & Willis, J 2014, ‘What really improves employee health and wellbeing’, International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 138-155. Kowalski, T, Loretto, W & Redman, T 2015, ‘Well—being and HRM in the changing workplace’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, V01. 26, no. 1, pp. - 123—126. Martin, MJ & Media, D 2011, Importance of Employee Safety, Hearst Ne paper, viewed 16 September 2015, <http://sma11business.chron.com/importance-employ —safety-15776.html>. Nankervis, A, Baird, M, Coffey, J & Shields, J 2014, Human Resource Wgement Strategy and Practice, 8th edn, Cengage Learning, Australia. @tﬁckson, M & Hartmann, L 2001, ‘Human Resource Management in Aus a”, nternational Journal of Manpower, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 198-206. Safe Work Australia 2015, About Safe Work Australia, Safe Work Aus ia, Viewed 16 September 2015, < http://www.safeworkaustraliagov.au/sites/swa/ out/pages/about >. Stone, RJ 2008, Human Resource Management, 6th edn, John Wilw Australia, Australia. Stone, RJ 2014, Human Resource Management, 8th edn, John Wily/éms Australia, Australia. work arrangements, work engagement, turnover intentions and psycholo ' a1 health’, Asia 0 Timms, C, Brough, P, O’Driscoll, M, Kalliath, T, Oi, LS, Sit, C & Lo, D 201 , ‘Flexible 3 Paciﬁc Journal of Human Resources, no. 53, pp. 83—103. ......_...n..................__......... P 9 ._...__._.___.__._._._._._._._._...................n.mm._....n.nmmm.mmmmmmmvauuaaa._._.WM._._._.....u..................... ...
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