Not to be confused with Stefanie Zweig.
For the 2016 film, see Stefan Zweig: Farewell to Europe.
Stefan Zweig, c. 1912
|Born||(1881-11-28)28 November 1881|
|Died||22 February 1942(1942-02-22) (aged 60)|
Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Occupation||Novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer|
|Known for||The Royal Game, Amok, Letter from an Unknown Woman, Confusion|
|Spouse(s)||Friderike Maria von Winternitz (born Burger) (1920–1938; divorced)|
Lotte Altmann (1939–1942; his death)
|Parent(s)||Moritz Zweig (1845–1926)|
Ida Brettauer (1854–1938)
|Relatives||Alfred Zweig (1879–1977)|
Stefan Zweig (;German:[tsvaɪk]; 28 November 1881 – 22 February 1942) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. At the height of his literary career, in the 1920s and 1930s, he was one of the most popular writers in the world.
Zweig was born in Vienna, the son of Moritz Zweig (1845–1926), a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer, and Ida Brettauer (1854–1938), a daughter of a Jewish banking family. He was related to the Czech writer Egon Hostovský, who described him as "a very distant relative"; some sources describe them as cousins.
Zweig studied philosophy at the University of Vienna and in 1904 earned a doctoral degree with a thesis on "The Philosophy of Hippolyte Taine". Religion did not play a central role in his education. "My mother and father were Jewish only through accident of birth," Zweig said later in an interview. Yet he did not renounce his Jewish faith and wrote repeatedly on Jews and Jewish themes, as in his story Buchmendel. Zweig had a warm relationship with Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, whom he met when Herzl was still literary editor of the Neue Freie Presse, then Vienna's main newspaper; Herzl accepted for publication some of Zweig's early essays. Zweig believed in internationalism and in Europeanism, as The World of Yesterday, his autobiography, makes clear. According to Amos Elon, Zweig called Herzl's book Der Judenstaat an "obtuse text, [a] piece of nonsense".
At the beginning of World War I, patriotic sentiment was widespread, and extended to many German and Austrian Jews: Zweig, as well as Martin Buber and Hermann Cohen, showed support. Zweig served in the Archives of the Ministry of War and adopted a pacifist stand like his friend Romain Rolland, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1915. Zweig married Friderike Maria von Winternitz (born Burger) in 1920; they divorced in 1938. As Friderike Zweig she published a book on her former husband after his death. She later also published a picture book on Zweig. In the late summer of 1939, Zweig married his secretary Elisabet Charlotte "Lotte" Altmann at Bath, England. Zweig's secretary in Salzburg from November 1919 to March 1938 was Anna Meingast (13 May 1881, Vienna – 17 November 1953, Salzburg).
In 1934, following Hitler's rise to power in Germany, Zweig left Austria for England, living first in London, then from 1939 in Bath. Because of the swift advance of Hitler's troops westwards, Zweig and his second wife crossed the Atlantic to the United States, settling in 1940 in New York City; they lived for two months as guests of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, then they rented a house in Ossining, New York.
On 22 August 1940, they moved again to Petrópolis, a German-colonized mountain town 68 kilometres north of Rio de Janeiro. Zweig, feeling increasingly depressed about the situation in Europe and the future for humanity, wrote in a letter to author Jules Romains, "My inner crisis consists in that I am not able to identify myself with the me of passport, the self of exile". On 23 February 1942, the Zweigs were found dead of a barbiturateoverdose in their house in the city of Petrópolis, holding hands. He had been despairing at the future of Europe and its culture. "I think it better to conclude in good time and in erect bearing a life in which intellectual labour meant the purest joy and personal freedom the highest good on Earth," he wrote.
The Zweigs' house in Brazil was later turned into a cultural centre and is now known as Casa Stefan Zweig.
Zweig was a prominent writer in the 1920s and 1930s, befriending Arthur Schnitzler and Sigmund Freud. He was extremely popular in the United States, South America and Europe, and remains so in continental Europe; however, he was largely ignored by the British public. His fame in America had diminished until the 1990s, when there began an effort on the part of several publishers (notably Pushkin Press, Hesperus Press, and The New York Review of Books) to get Zweig back into print in English.Plunkett Lake Press has reissued electronic versions of his non-fiction works. Since that time there has been a marked resurgence and a number of Zweig's books are back in print.
Critical opinion of his oeuvre is strongly divided between those who despise his literary style as poor, lightweight and superficial, and those who praise his humanism, simplicity and effective style.Michael Hofmann is scathingly dismissive of Zweig's work, which he dubbed a "vermicular dither", adding that "Zweig just tastes fake. He's the Pepsi of Austrian writing." Even the author's suicide note left Hofmann gripped by "the irritable rise of boredom halfway through it, and the sense that he doesn't mean it, his heart isn't in it (not even in his suicide)".
Zweig is best known for his novellas (notably The Royal Game, Amok, and Letter from an Unknown Woman – which was filmed in 1948 by Max Ophüls), novels (Beware of Pity, Confusion of Feelings, and the posthumously published The Post Office Girl) and biographies (notably of Erasmus of Rotterdam, Ferdinand Magellan, and Mary, Queen of Scots, and also the posthumously published one on Balzac). At one time his works were published without his consent in English under the pseudonym "Stephen Branch" (a translation of his real name) when anti-German sentiment was running high. His 1932 biography of Queen Marie Antoinette was adapted by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a 1938 film starring Norma Shearer.
Zweig's memoir,The World of Yesterday, was completed in 1942 one day before he committed suicide. It has been widely discussed as a record of "what it meant to be alive between 1881 and 1942" in central Europe; the book has attracted both critical praise and hostile dismissal.
Zweig acknowledged his debt to psychoanalysis. In a letter dated 8 September 1926, he wrote to Freud, "Psychology is the great business of my life". He went on explaining that Freud had considerable influence on a number of writers such as Marcel Proust, D.H. Lawrence and James Joyce giving them a lesson of "courage" and helping them overcome their inhibitions, "Thanks to you, we see many things. – Thanks to you we say many things which otherwise we would not have seen nor said." Autobiography, in particular, had become "more clear-sighted and audacious."
Zweig enjoyed a close association with Richard Strauss, and provided the libretto for Die schweigsame Frau (The Silent Woman). Strauss famously defied the Nazi regime by refusing to sanction the removal of Zweig's name from the programme  for the work's première on 24 June 1935 in Dresden. As a result, Goebbels refused to attend as planned, and the opera was banned after three performances. Zweig later collaborated with Joseph Gregor, to provide Strauss with the libretto for one other opera, Daphne, in 1937. At least one other work by Zweig received a musical setting: the pianist and composer Henry Jolles, who like Zweig had fled to Brazil to escape the Nazis, composed a song, "Último poema de Stefan Zweig", based on "Letztes Gedicht", which Zweig wrote on the occasion of his 60th birthday in November 1941. During his stay in Brazil, Zweig wrote Brasilien, Ein Land der Zukunft (Brazil, Land of the Future) which was an accurate analysis of his newly adopted country; in this book he managed to demonstrate a fair understanding of the Brazilian culture that surrounded him.
Zweig was a passionate collector of manuscripts. There are important Zweig collections at the British Library, at the State University of New York at Fredonia and at the National Library of Israel. The British Library's Stefan Zweig Collection was donated to the library by his heirs in May 1986. It specialises in autograph music manuscripts, including works by Bach, Haydn, Wagner, and Mahler. It has been described as "one of the world's greatest collections of autograph manuscripts". One particularly precious item is Mozart's "Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke" – that is, the composer's own handwritten thematic catalogue of his works.
The 1993–1994 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour.
The dates mentioned below are the dates of first publication in German.
- Forgotten Dreams, 1900 (Original title: Vergessene Träume)
- Spring in the Prater, 1900 (Original title: Praterfrühling)
- A Loser, 1901 (Original title: Ein Verbummelter)
- In the Snow, 1901 (Original title: Im Schnee)
- Two Lonely Souls, 1901 (Original title: Zwei Einsame)
- The Miracles of Life, 1903 (Original title: Die Wunder des Lebens)
- The Love of Erika Ewald, 1904 (Original title: Die Liebe der Erika Ewald)
- The Star Over the Forest, 1904 (Original title: Der Stern über dem Walde)
- The Fowler Snared, 1906 (Original title: Sommernovellette)
- The Governess, 1907 (Original title: Die Governante)
- Scarlet Fever, 1908 (Original title: Scharlach)
- Twilight, 1910 (Original title: Geschichte eines Unterganges)
- A Story Told In Twilight, 1911 (Original title: Geschichte in der Dämmerung)
- Burning Secret, 1913 (Original title: Brennendes Geheimnis (de))
- Fear, 1920 (Original title: Angst)
- Compulsion, 1920 (Original title: Der Zwang)
- The Eyes of My Brother, Forever, 1922 (Original title: Die Augen des ewigen Bruders)
- Fantastic Night, 1922 (Original title: Phantastische Nacht)
- Letter from an Unknown Woman, 1922 (Original title: Brief einer Unbekannten)
- Moonbeam Alley, 1922 (Original title: Die Mondscheingasse)
- Amok, 1922 (Original title: Amok) – novella, initially published with several others in Amok. Novellen einer Leidenschaft
- The Invisible Collection, 1925 (Original title: Die unsichtbare Sammlung)
- Downfall of the Heart, 1927 (Original title: Untergang eines Herzens)
- The Invisible Collection see Collected Stories below, (Original title: Die Unsichtbare Sammlung, first published in book form in 'Insel-Almanach auf das Jahr 1927')
- The Refugee, 1927 (Original title: Der Flüchtling. Episode vom Genfer See).
- Confusion of Feelings or Confusion: The Private Papers of Privy Councillor R. Von D, 1927 (Original title: Verwirrung der Gefühle) – novella initially published in the volume Verwirrung der Gefühle: Drei Novellen
- Twenty-Four Hours in the Life of a Woman, 1927 (Original title: Vierundzwanzig Stunden aus dem Leben einer Frau) – novella initially published in the volume Verwirrung der Gefühle: Drei Novellen
- Buchmendel, 1929 (Original title: Buchmendel)
- Short stories, 1930 (Original title: Kleine Chronik. Vier Erzählungen) – includes Buchmendel
- Did He Do It?, published between 1935 and 1940 (Original title: War er es?)
- Leporella, 1935 (Original title: Leporella)
- Collected Stories, 1936 (Original title: Gesammelte Erzählungen) – two volumes of short stories:
1. The Chains (Original title: Die Kette)
2. Kaleidoscope (Original title: Kaleidoskop). Includes: Casual Knowledge of a Craft, Leporella, Fear, Burning Secret, Summer Novella, The Governess, Buchmendel, The Refugee, The Invisible Collection, Fantastic Night and Moonbeam Alley
- Incident on Lake Geneva, 1936 (Original title: Episode an Genfer See Revised version of "Der Flüchtung. Episode vom Genfer See" published in 1927)
- The Buried Candelabrum, 1936
- Beware of Pity, 1939 (Original title: Ungeduld des Herzens) novel
- The Royal Game or Chess Story or Chess (Original title: Schachnovelle; Buenos Aires, 1942) – novella written in 1938–41,
- Journey into the Past, 1976 (Original title: Widerstand der Wirklichkeit)
- Clarissa, 1981 unfinished novel
- The Debt Paid Late, 1982 (Original title: Die spät bezahlte Schuld)
- The Post Office Girl, 1982 (Original title: Rausch der Verwandlung. Roman aus dem Nachlaß; The Intoxication of Metamorphosis)
- Schneewinter: 50 zeitlose Gedichte, 2016, editor Martin Werhand. Melsbach, Martin Werhand Verlag 2016
Biographies and historical texts
- Emile Verhaeren (the Belgian poet), 1910
- Three Masters: Balzac, Dickens, Dostoeffsky, 1920 (Original title: Drei Meister. Balzac – Dickens – Dostojewski. Translated into English by Eden and Cedar Paul and published in 1930 as Three Masters)
- Romain Rolland. The Man and His Works, 1921 (Original title: Romain Rolland. Der Mann und das Werk)
- Nietzsche, 1925 (Originally published in the volume titled: Der Kampf mit dem Dämon. Hölderlin – Kleist – Nietzsche)
- Decisive Moments in History, 1927 (Original title: Sternstunden der Menschheit. Translated into English and published in 1940 as The Tide of Fortune: Twelve Historical Miniatures)
- Adepts in Self-Portraiture: Casanova, Stendhal, Tolstoy, 1928 (Original title: Drei Dichter ihres Lebens. Casanova – Stendhal – Tolstoi)
- Joseph Fouché, 1929 (Original title: Joseph Fouché. Bildnis eines politischen Menschen) Now available as an electronic book
- Mental Healers: Franz Mesmer, Mary Baker Eddy, Sigmund Freud, 1932 (Original title: Die Heilung durch den Geist. Mesmer, Mary Baker-Eddy, Freud) Now available as an electronic book.
- Marie Antoinette: The Portrait of an Average Woman, 1932 (Original title: Marie Antoinette. Bildnis eines mittleren Charakters) ISBN 4-87187-855-4
- Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1934 (Original title: Triumph und Tragik des Erasmus von Rotterdam)
- Maria StuartISBN 4-87187-858-9
- The Right to Heresy: Castellio against Calvin, 1936 (Original title: Castellio gegen Calvin oder Ein Gewissen gegen die Gewalt)
- Conqueror of the Seas: The Story of Magellan, 1938 (Original title: Magellan. Der Mann und seine Tat) ISBN 4-87187-856-2
- Amerigo, 1942 (Original title: Amerigo. Geschichte eines historischen Irrtums) – written in 1942, published the day before he died ISBN 4-87187-857-0
- Balzac, 1946 – written, as Richard Friedenthal (de) describes in a postscript, by Zweig in the Brazilian summer capital of Petrópolis, without access to the files, notebooks, lists, tables, editions and monographs that Zweig accumulated for many years and that he took with him to Bath, but that he left behind when he went to America. Friedenthal wrote that Balzac "was to be his magnum opus, and he had been working at it for ten years. It was to be a summing up of his own experience as an author and of what life had taught him." Friedenthal claimed that "The book had been finished", though not every chapter was complete; he used a working copy of the manuscript Zweig left behind him to apply "the finishing touches", and Friedenthal rewrote the final chapters (Balzac, translated by William and Dorothy Rose [New York: Viking, 1946], pp. 399, 402).
- Tersites, 1907 (Original title: Tersites)
- Das Haus am Meer, 1912
- Jeremiah, 1917 (Original title: Jeremias)
- The World of Yesterday (Original title: Die Welt von Gestern; Stockholm, 1942) – autobiography. Ebook available from Plunkett Lake Press
- Brazil, Land of the Future (Original title: Brasilien. Ein Land der Zukunft; Bermann-Fischer, Stockholm 1941)
- Journeys (Original title: Auf Reisen; Zurich, 1976); collection of essays
- Darién J. Davis; Oliver Marshall, eds. (2010). Stefan and Lotte Zweig's South American Letters: New York, Argentina and Brazil, 1940–42. New York: Continuum. ISBN 1441107126.
Artist Jeff Gabel created an English-language adaptation of Vierundzwanzig Stunden aus dem Leben einer Frau in a large-scale comic book format in 2004, titled 24 Hours in the Life of a Woman.
Beware of Pity was adapted into a 1946 film with the same title, directed by Maurice Elvey.
An adaptation by Stephen Wyatt of Beware of Pity was broadcast by BBC Radio 4 in 2011.
The 2013 French film A Promise (Une promesse) is based on Zweig's novella Journey into the Past (Reise in die Vergangenheit).
The 2013 Swiss film Mary Queen of Scots directed by Thomas Imbach is based on Zweig's Maria Stuart.
The end-credits for Wes Anderson's 2014 film The Grand Budapest Hotel say that the film was inspired in part by Zweig's novels. Anderson said that he had "stolen" from Zweig's novels Beware of Pity and The Post-Office Girl in writing the film, and it features actors Tom Wilkinson as The Author, a character based loosely on Zweig, and Jude Law as his younger, idealised self seen in flashbacks. Anderson also said that the film's protagonist, the concierge Gustave H., played by Ralph Fiennes, was based on Zweig. In the film's opening sequence, a teenaged girl visits a shrine for The Author, which includes a bust of him wearing Zweig-like spectacles and celebrated as his country's "National Treasure".
The 2016 Austrian-German Film Vor der Morgenröte (Stefan Zweig: Farewell to Europe) chronicles Stefan Zweig's travels in the North and South Americas, trying to come to terms with his exile from home.
- ^"Zweig". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- ^ abKavanagh, Julie (Spring 2009). "Stefan Zweig: The Secret Superstar". Intelligent Life. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012.
- ^Prof.Dr. Klaus Lohrmann "Jüdisches Wien. Kultur-Karte" (2003), Mosse-Berlin Mitte gGmbH (Verlag Jüdische Presse)
- ^Egon Hostovský: Vzpomínky, studie a dokumenty o jeho díle a osudu, Sixty-Eight Publishers, 1974
- ^Gabe Friedman (17 January 2015). "Meet the Austrian-Jewish novelist who inspired Wes Anderson's 'The Grand Budapest Hotel'". Haaretz.com.
- ^Elon, Amos (2002). The Pity of it All. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 287.
- ^Elon, 320
- ^Zweig, Friderike (1948). Stefan Zweig – Wie ich ihn erlebte. Berlin: F.A. Herbig Verlag.
- ^Zweig, Friderike (1961). Stefan Zweig : Eine Bildbiographie. München: Kindler.
- ^"Index entry for marriage of Altmann, Elisabet C., Spouse:Zweig, Registration district: Bath Register volume & page nbr: 5c, 1914". Transcription of England and Wales national marriage registrations index 1837-1983. ONS. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- ^Thuswaldner, Werner (14 December 2000). "Wichtiges zu Stefan Zweig: Das Salzburger Literaturarchiv erhielt eine bedeutende Schenkung von Wilhelm Meingast" [Important to Stefan Zweig: The Salzburg Literature Archive received a significant donation from Wilhelm Meingast]. Salzburger Nachrichten (in German). Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- ^Dias Carneiro, Júlia (30 April 2009). "Revivendo o país do futuro de Stefan Zweig" [Reviving the country of the future according to Stefan Zweig] (in Portuguese). Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- ^"When It's Too Late to Stop Fascism, According to Stefan Zweig". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- ^"Stefan Zweig, Wife End Lives In Brazil". The New York Times. The United Press. 23 February 1942. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- ^"Milestones, Mar. 2, 1942". Time. 2 March 1942. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- ^Banville, John (27 February 2009). "Ruined souls". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- ^Fowles, John (1981). Introduction to "The Royal Game". New York: Obelisk. pp. ix.
- ^ abWalton, Stuart (26 March 2010). "Stefan Zweig? Just a pedestrian stylist". The Guardian. London.
- ^ abcLezard, Nicholas (5 December 2009). "The World of Yesterday by Stefan Zweig". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- ^"Plunkett Lake Press". Stefan Zweig.
- ^Rohter, Larry. "Stefan Zweig, Austrian Novelist, Rises Again". The New York Times. 28 May 2014
- ^Liukkonen, Petri (2008). "Stefan Zweig". Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015 – via kirjasto.sci.fi.
- ^ abHofmann, Michael (2010). "Vermicular Dither". London Review of Books. 32 (2): 9–12. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- ^Jones, Lewis (11 January 2010), "The World of Yesterday", The Telegraph, retrieved 2 November 2015
- ^Lezard, Nicholas (4 December 2009), "The World of Yesterday by Stefan Zweig", The Guardian, retrieved 2 November 2015
- ^Brody, Richard (14 March 2014), "Stefan Zweig, Wes Anderson, and a Longing for the Past", The New Yorker, retrieved 2 November 2015
- ^Sigmund Freud, Stefan Zweig, Correspondance, Editions Rivages, Paris, 1995, ISBN 978-2869309654
- ^Richard Strauss/Stefan Zweig: BriefWechsel, 1957, translated as A Confidential Matter, 1977
- ^"Author: Stefan Zweig (1881 - 1942)". REC Music Foundation. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- ^Musica Reanimata of Berlin, Henry Jolles accessed 25 January 2009
- ^Biographical sketch of Stefan Zweig at Casa Stefan Zweig accessed 28 September 2008
- ^"The Zweig Music Collection". bl.uk.
- ^Mozart's "Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke" at the British Library Online Gallery accessed 14 October 2009
- ^"Die unsichtbare sammlung". Open Library. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
- ^"Stefan Zweig." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 21 November 2010.
- ^"Beware of Pity (1946)". BFI.
- ^"'Classic Serial: Stefan Zweig – Beware of Pity'". Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- ^Mary Queen of Scots (2013) on IMDb
- ^Anderson, Wes (8 March 2014). "'I stole from Stefan Zweig': Wes Anderson on the author who inspired his latest movie". The Daily Telegraph (Interview). Interview with George Prochnik. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- ^"Stefan Zweig: Farewell to Europe (2016)". imdb.com.
- Elizabeth Allday, Stefan Zweig: A Critical Biography, J. Philip O'Hara, Inc., Chicago, 1972[ISBN missing]
- Darién J. Davis; Oliver Marshall, eds. (2010). Stefan and Lotte Zweig's South American Letters: New York, Argentina and Brazil, 1940–42. New York: Continuum. ISBN 1441107126.
- Alberto Dines, Morte no Paraíso, a Tragédia de Stefan Zweig, Editora Nova Fronteira 1981, (rev. ed.) Editora Rocco 2004
- Alberto Dines, Tod im Paradies. Die Tragödie des Stefan Zweig, Edition Büchergilde, 2006
- Randolph J. Klawiter, Stefan Zweig. An International Bibliography, Ariadne Press, Riverside, 1991[ISBN missing]
- Donald A. Prater, European of Yesterday: A Biography of Stefan Zweig, Holes and Meier Publ., (rev. ed.) 2003[ISBN missing]
- George Prochnik, The Impossible Exile: Stefan Zweig at the End of the World, Random House, 2014, ISBN 978-1590516126
- Marion Sonnenfeld (editor), The World of Yesterday's Humanist Today. Proceedings of the Stefan Zweig Symposium, texts by Alberto Dines, Randolph J. Klawiter, Leo Spitzer and Harry Zohn, State University of New York Press, 1983
- Vanwesenbeeck, Birger; Gelber, Mark H. Stefan Zweig and World Literature: Twenty-First-Century Perspectives. Rochester: Camden House. ISBN 9781571139245.
- Friderike Zweig, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1946 (An account of his life by his first wife)
- Martin Mauthner, German Writers in French Exile, 1933–1940, Vallentine Mitchell, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-85303-540-4
- Oliver Matuschek, Three Lives: A Biography of Stefan Zweig, translated by Allan Blunden, Pushkin Press, 2011[ISBN missing]
- Giorgia Sogos, "Le biografie di Stefan Zweig tra Geschichte e Psychologie. Triumph und Tragik des Erasmus von Rotterdam, Marie Antoinette, Maria Stuart", Firenze University Press, Firenze 2013, e-ISBN 978-88-6655-508-7.
- Giorgia Sogos, "Stefan Zweig, der Kosmopolit. Studiensammlung über seine Werke und andere Beiträge. Eine kritische Analyse", Free Pen Verlag, Bonn 2017, ISBN 978-3-945177-43-3.
- Zweig Music Collection at the British Library
- Stefan Zweig Collection at the Daniel A. Reed Library, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, New York
- Stefan Zweig Online Bibliography, a wiki hosted by Daniel A. Reed Library, State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, New York
- Stefan Zweig Centre Salzburg
- Works by Stefan Zweig at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Stefan Zweig at Internet Archive
- Works by Stefan Zweig at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Beware of Pity, review by Joan Acocella in The New York Review of Books, July 13, 2006
- "No Exit", article on Zweig at Tablet Magazine
- "To Friends in Foreign Land" – Zweig's letter, which he published in the newspaper Berliner Tageblatt, on September 19, 1914
Stefan Zweig, (born November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire [now in Austria]—found dead February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Austrian writer who achieved distinction in several genres—poetry, essays, short stories, and dramas—most notably in his interpretations of imaginary and historical characters.
Zweig was raised in Vienna. His first book, a volume of poetry, was published in 1901. He received a doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1904 and traveled widely in Europe before settling in Salzburg, Austria, in 1913. In 1934, driven into exile by the Nazis, he emigrated to England and then, in 1940, to Brazil by way of New York. Finding only growing loneliness and disillusionment in their new surroundings, he and his second wife committed suicide.
Zweig’s interest in psychology and the teachings of Sigmund Freud led to his most characteristic work, the subtle portrayal of character. Zweig’s essays include studies of Honoré de Balzac, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Drei Meister, 1920; Three Masters) and of Friedrich Hölderlin, Heinrich von Kleist, and Friedrich Nietzsche (Der Kampf mit dem Dämon, 1925; Master Builders). He achieved popularity with Sternstunden der Menschheit (1928; The Tide of Fortune), five historical portraits in miniature. He wrote full-scale, intuitive rather than objective, biographies of the French statesman Joseph Fouché (1929), Mary Stuart (1935), and others. His stories include those in Verwirrung der Gefühle (1925; Conflicts). He also wrote a psychological novel, Ungeduld des Herzens (1938; Beware of Pity), and translated works of Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, and Émile Verhaeren.