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Clinoidal Meningioma Classification Essay

HISTORY

In 1938, Cushing and Eisenhardt8 broadly classified this group as “deep inner or clinoidal third sphenoid ridge meningiomas,” and this marked the first use of “clinoidal” to distinguish these tumors. In the French literature, Vincent9 referred to them as “sphenocavernous meningiomas” in 1935. The classification of Bonnal and colleagues10 in 1980 identified a group of “sphenocavernous and clinoidal meningiomas” and described them as “extended upward in to the cranial cavity from the dura of cavernous sinus, of the anterior clinoid process and of the internal part of the sphenoid wing.” This group is also similar to the first category of Ojemann’s11 sphenoid ridge meningiomas. Al-Mefty’s1 elegant and more detailed system that was introduced in 1990 classified clinoidal meningiomas as a separate disease entity. Likewise, other reports have attributed unique clinical characteristics and outcomes to sphenocavernous meningiomas (which arise from the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus), cavernous meningiomas (which arise from cavernous sinus proper), planum sphenoidale meningiomas, optic canal meningiomas, and hyperostosing meningiomas of the sphenoid wing.1216

Сначала используемые пароли были довольно короткими, что давало возможность компьютерам АНБ их «угадывать». Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр. Этот метод проб и ошибок был известен как применение «грубой силы».

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